... Julgo que depois destes malabarismos, os currículos das pessoas com funções políticas activas com o propósito de praticar o bem comum de uma nação, devem ser exigidos e publicados em Diário da Republica para qualquer cidadão poder consultar e certificar-se das habilitações de cada politico. Não deve ser uma opção, mas uma condição contemplada numa lei própria para o efeito, pois como sabemos, nenhum trabalhador é admitido numa função numa empresa, sem referências e/ou curriculo académico/profissional. será verdade que o PS está "calado" neste caso da licenciatura de M. Relvas porque o Irmão Maçon António Seguro dos Bancos (da Universidade Lusófona) foi um dos professores envolvido no processo?...

Indignados TugaLeaks, Precários Inflexíveis, 15-M, Sindicatos, CGTP, UGT, Bloggers, Cristão, AOFA, e Coronel Pereira Cracel Lider do Principal Grupo de Pressão Política Portugal Lista ternacional da CIA Onde Consta Taliban



TugaLeaks, 15 de Maio, May15, Indignados, Geração á Rásca, sindicatos, e até a Associação dos Oficiais das Forças Armadas é acusada pela CIA de ser 'grupo de pressão'



Agência de espionagem destaca nome do coronel Pereira Cracel como líder do principal grupo de pressão política em Portugal. UGT, CGTP e Movimento dos Precários Inflexíveis são também apontados pela CIA. A agência de Espionagem Norte-Americana coloca tudo ao mesmo nível, visto que da mesma lista fazem parte: FARC, KONY, TALIBAN, Precários Inflexiveis, ETA, Igrejas Católica e Evangélica, FLEC, muçulmanos e até cristãos............


Tudo ao molhe. A CIA coloca oficiais superiores das forças
armadas no topo dos "grupos de pressão política"


Field Listing

:: Political pressure groups and leaders
This entry includes a listing
of a country's political, social, labor, or religious organizations
that are involved in politics, or that exert political pressure, but
whose leaders do not stand for legislative election. International
movements or organizations are generally not listed.


Country
Political
pressure groups and leaders
Afghanistan other:

religious groups;

tribal leaders; ethnically based groups; Taliban
Albania Red and
Black Alliance [Kreshnik SPAHIU]; Front for Albanian National
Unification or FBKSH [Gafur ADILI]; Mjaft Movement [Elton KACIDHJA];
Omonia [Vasil BOLLANO]; Union of Independent Trade Unions of Albania or
BSPSH [Gezim KALAJA]
Algeria The
Algerian Human Rights League or LADDH [Mostefa BOUCHACHI]; SOS Disparus
[Nacera DUTOUR]
American
Samoa
Population
Pressure LAS (addresses the growing population pressures)
Andorra NA
Angola Frente de
Libertação do Enclave de Cabinda, FLEC [N'zita
Henriques TIAGO, Antonio Bento [BEMBE]

Front for the Liberation of the Enclave of Cabinda or FLEC [N'zita
Henriques TIAGO, Antonio Bento BEMBE]



nota:

Apesar de assinados acordos de paz com o governogosto de 2006, persiste a luta do pequeno exército, persiste a luta de guerrilha de pequena escala das forças das FLEC pelo controle de Cabinda.(observação extra: Isto afecta a delapidação do petróleo e diamantes

note:

FLEC's small-scale armed struggle for the Independence of Cabinda Province persists despite the signing of a peace accord with the government in August 2006
Anguilla NA
Antiguaand Barbuda Antigua Trades and Labor Union or ATLU [William ROBINSON]; People's Democratic
Movement or PDM [Hugh MARSHALL]
Argentina Argentine Association of Pharmaceutical Labs (CILFA); Argentine Industrial Union manufacturers' association); Argentine Rural Confederation or CRA (small to medium landowners' association); Argentine Rural Society large landowners' association); Central of Argentine Workers or CTA (a radical union for employed and unemployed workers);
GeneralConfederation of Labor or CGT (Peronist-leaning umbrella labor organization); White and Blue CGT (dissident CGT labor confederation);

Roman Catholic Church

other:

business organizations; Peronist-dominated labor movement; Piquetero groups (popular protest organizations that can be either pro or anti-government); students
Armenia Aylentrank (Impeachment Alliance) [Nikol PASHINIAN]; Yerkrapah Union [Manvel
GRIGORIAN]
Aruba other:
environmental groups
Australia other:

business groups;
environmental groups; social groups; trade unions
Austria Austrian Trade Union Federation or OeGB nominally independent but primarily Social Democratic); Federal Economic Chamber; Labor Chamber or AK (Social Democratic-leaning think tank); OeVP-oriented Association of Austrian Industrialists or IV; Roman Catholic Church, including its chief lay organization, Catholic Action

other:

three composite leagues of the Austrian People's Party or OeVP
representing business, labor, farmers, and other nongovernment
organizations in the areas of environment and human rights
Azerbaijan Azerbaijan
Public Forum [Eldar NAMAZOV]; Karabakh Liberation Organization
Bahamas,
The
Amigos do
ambiente, Ambientalistas

Friends of the Environment



outros:

Sindicatos, associaciones de paro

other:

trade unions
Bahrain Shia
activists; Sunni Islamist legislators



other:

several small leftist and other groups are active
Bangladesh Advocacy to
End Gender-based Violence through the MoWCA (Ministry of Women's and
Children's Affairs)



other:

environmentalists; Islamist groups; religious leaders; teachers; union
leaders
Barbados Barbados
Secondary Teachers' Union or BSTU [Patrick FROST]; Barbados Union of
Teachers or BUT [Herbert GITTENS]; Congress of Trade Unions and Staff
Associations of Barbados or CTUSAB, (includes the BWU, NUPW, BUT, and
BSTU) [Leroy TROTMAN]; Barbados Workers Union or BWU [Leroy TROTMAN];
Clement Payne Labor Union [David COMISSIONG]; National Union of Public
Workers [Joseph GODDARD]
Belarus Assembly of
Pro-Democratic NGOs (unregistered) [Sergey MATSKEVICH]; Belarusian
Congress of Democratic Trade Unions [Aleksandr YAROSHUK]; Belarusian
Association of Journalists [Zhana LITVINA]; Belarusian Helsinki
Committee [Aleh HULAK]; Belarusian Independence Bloc (unregistered) and
For Freedom movement [Aleksandr MILINKEVICH]; Belarusian Organization
of Working Women [Irina ZHIKHAR]; BPF-Youth [Andrus KRECHKA]; Charter
97 (unregistered) [Andrey SANNIKOV]; Perspektiva small business
association [Anatol HUMCHENKO]; Nasha Vyasna (unregistered) ("Our
Spring") human rights center [Ales BYALYATSKI]; "Tell the Truth"
Movement [Vladimir NEKLYAYEV]; Women's Independent Democratic Movement
[Ludmila PETINA]; Young Belarus (Malady Belarus) [Zmitser
KASPYAROVICH]; Youth Front (Malady Front) [Zmitser DASHKEVICH]
Belgium Christian,
Socialist, and Liberal Trade Unions; Federation of Belgian Industries



other:

numerous other associations representing bankers manufacturers,
middle-class artisans, and the legal and medical professions; various
organizations represent the cultural interests of Flanders and
Wallonia; various peace groups such as Pax Christi and groups
representing immigrants
Belize Society for
the Promotion of Education and Research or SPEAR [Nicole HAYLOCK];
Association of Concerned Belizeans or ACB [David VASQUEZ]; National
Trade Union Congress of Belize or NTUC/B [Rene GOMEZ]
Benin other:

economic groups;
environmentalists; political groups; teachers' unions and other
educational groups
Bermuda Bermuda
Employer's Union [Eddie SAINTS]; Bermuda Industrial Union or BIU
[Derrick BURGESS]; Bermuda Public Services Union or BPSU [Ed BALL];

Bermuda Union of Teachers [Michael CHARLES]
Bhutan United
Front for Democracy (exiled); Druk National Congress (exiled)



other:

Buddhist clergy; ethnic Nepalese organizations leading militant
antigovernment campaign; Indian merchant community
Bolivia Bolivian
Workers Central or COB; Federation of Neighborhood Councils of El Alto
or FEJUVE; Landless Movement or MST; National Coordinator for Change or
CONALCAM; Sole Confederation of Campesino Workers of Bolivia or CSUTCB



other:

Cocalero groups; indigenous organizations including Confederation of
Indigenous Peoples of Eastern Bolivia or CIDOB and National Council of
Ayullus and Markas of Quollasuyu or CONAMAQ); Interculturales union or
CSCIB; labor unions (including the Central Bolivian Workers' Union or
COB and Cooperative Miners Federation or FENCOMIN)
Bosnia
and Herzegovina
other:

war veterans;

displaced persons associations; family associations of missing persons;

private media
Botswana First
People of the Kalahari (Bushman organization); Pitso Ya Ba Tswana;

Society for the Promotion of Ikalanga Language (Kalanga elites)



other:

diamond mining companies
Brazil Landless
Workers' Movement or MST



other:

industrial federations; labor unions and federations; large farmers'
associations; religious groups including evangelical Christian churches
and the Catholic Church
British
Virgin Islands
The Family
Support Network; The Women's Desk



other:

environmentalists
Brunei NA
Bulgaria Confederation
of Independent Trade Unions of Bulgaria or CITUB; Podkrepa Labo
Confederation



other:

numerous regional, ethnic, and national interest groups with various
agendas
Burkina
Faso
Burkinabe
General Confederation of Labor or CGTB [Tole SAGNON]; Burkinabe
Movement for Human Rights or MBDHP [Chrysigone ZOUGMORE]; Group of 14
February [Benewende STANISLAS]; National Confederation of Burkinabe
Workers or CNTB [Laurent OUEDRAOGO]; National Organization of Free
Unions or ONSL [Paul KABORE]



other:

watchdog/political action groups throughout the country in both
organizations and communities
Burma Thai

border:
Ethnic
Nationalities Council or ENC; Federation of Trade Unions-Burma or FTUB
(exile trade union and labor advocates); National Coalition Government
of the Union of Burma or NCGUB (self-proclaimed government in exile)
["Prime Minister" Dr. SEIN WIN] consists of individuals, some
legitimately elected to the People's Assembly in 1990 (the group fled
to a border area and joined insurgents in December 1990 to form a
parallel government in exile); National Council-Union of Burma or NCUB
(exile coalition of opposition groups)



Inside Burma:

Kachin Independence Organization or KIO; Karen National Union or KNU;
Karenni National People's Party or KNPP; United Wa State Army or UWSA;

88 Generation Students (pro-democrac movement); several other Shan
factions



note:

freedom of expression has been highly restricted in Burma; the
restrictions are being relaxed by th government; political groups,
other than parties approved by the government, are limited in number
Burundi Forum for

the Strengthening of Civil Society or FORSC [Pacifique NININAHAZWE]

(civil society umbrella organization); Observatoire de lutte contre la

corruption et les malversations economiques or OLUCOME [Gabriel

RUFYIRI] (anti-corruption pressure group)



other:

Hutu and Tutsi militias (loosely organized)
Cambodia Cambodian
Freedom Fighters or CFF; Partnership for Transparency Fund or PTF

(anti-corruption organization); Students Movement for Democracy; The

Committee for Free and Fair Elections or Comfrel



other:

human rights organizations; vendors
Cameroon Human
Rights Defense Group [Albert MUKONG, president]; Southern Cameroon

National Council [Ayamba Ette OTUN]
Canada other:

agricultural sector;

automobile industry; business groups; chemical industry; commercial
banks; communications sector; energy industry; environmentalists;

public administration groups; steel industry; trade unions
Cape
Verde
other:

environmentalists;

political pressure groups
Cayman
Islands
National
Trust



other:

environmentalists
Central
African Republic
Monam
(combating gender-base violence)
Chad rebel
groups
Chile Roman
Catholic Church, particularly conservative groups such as Opus Dei;

United Labor Central or CUT includes trade unionists from the country's
five largest labor confederations



other:

revitalized university student federations at all major universities
China no
substantial political opposition groups exist
Christmas
Island
none
Cocos
(Keeling) Islands
The Cocos
Islands Youth Support Centre
Colombia Central
Union of Workers or CUT; Colombian Confederation of Workers or CTC;

General Confederation of Workers or CGT; National Liberation Army or
ELN; Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia or FARC



note:

FARC and ELN are the two largest insurgent groups active in Colombia
Comoros other:

environmentalists
Congo,
Democratic Republic of the
MONUSCO -
UN peacekeeping force; FARDC (Forces Arm?es de la R?publique

D?mocratique du Congo) - Army of the Democratic Republic of the Congo
which commits atrocities on citizens; FDLR (Forces Democratiques de
Liberation du Rwanda) - Rwandan militia group made up of some of the
perpetrators of Rwanda's Genocide in 1994; CNDP (National Congress for
the Defense of the People) - mainly Congolese Tutsis who want refugees
returned and more representation in government
Congo,
Republic of the
Congolese
Trade Union Congress or CSC; General Union of Congolese Pupils and
Students or UGEEC; Revolutionary Union of Congolese Women or URFC;

Union of Congolese Socialist Youth or UJSC
Cook
Islands
Reform
Conference (lobby for political system changes)



other:

various groups lobbying for political change
Costa
Rica
Authentic
Confederation of Democratic Workers or CATD (Communist Party
affiliate); Chamber of Coffee Growers; Confederated Union of Workers or
CUT (Communist Party affiliate); Costa Rican Confederation of
Democratic Workers or CCTD (Liberation Party affiliate); Costa Rican
Exporter's Chamber or CADEXCO; Costa Rican Solidarity Movement; Costa
Rican Union of Private Sector Enterprises or UCCAEP; Federation of
Public Service Workers or FTSP; National Association for Economic
Development or ANFE; National Association of Educators or ANDE;

National Association of Public and Private Employees or ANEP; Rerum
Novarum or CTRN (PLN affiliate)
Cote
d'Ivoire
Federation
of University and High School Students of Cote d'Ivoire or FESCI
[Serges KOFFI]; National Congress for the Resistance and Democracy or
CNRD [Bernard DADIE]; Rally of Houphouetists for Democracy and Peace or
RHDP [Alphonse DJEDJE MADY]; Young Patriots [Charles BLE GOUDE]
Croatia other:

human rights groups
Cuba Human
Rights Watch; National Association of Small Farmers
Cyprus Confederation
of Cypriot Workers or SEK (pro-West); Confederation of Revolutionary
Labor Unions or Dev-Is; Federation of Turkish Cypriot Labor Unions or
Turk-Sen; Pan-Cyprian Labor Federation or PEO (Communist controlled)
Czech
Republic
Czech-Moravian
Confederation of Trade Unions or CMKOS [Jaroslav ZAVADIL]
Denmark Confederation
of Danish Employers or DA [President Jorn Neergaard LARSEN];

Confederation of Danish Industries [CEO Karsten DYBVAD]; Confederation
of Danish Labor Unions (Landsorganisationen) or LO [President Harald
BORSTING]; Danish Bankers Association [CEO Joergen HORWITZ]; DaneAge
Association [President Bjarne HASTRUP]; Danish Society for Nature
Conservation [President Ella Maria BISSCHOP-LARSEN]



other:

environmental groups; humanitarian relief; development assistance;

human rights NGOs
Djibouti NA
Dominica Dominica
Liberation Movement or DLM (a small leftist party)
Dominican
Republic
Citizen
Participation Group (Participacion Ciudadania); Collective of Popular
Organizations or COP; Foundation for Institution-Building and Justice
(FINJUS)
Ecuador Confederation
of Indigenous Nationalities of Ecuador or CONAIE [Humberto CHOLANGO];
Federation of Indigenous Evangelists of Ecuador or FEINE [Manuel
CHUGCHILAN, president]; National Federation of Indigenous
Afro-Ecuatorianos and Peasants or FENOCIN [Luis Alberto ANDRANGO
Cadena, president]; National Teacher's Union or UNE [Mariana PALLASCO]
Egypt Muslim
Brotherhood (technically illegal)



note:

despite a constitutional ban against religious-based parties and
political activity, the technically illegal Muslim Brotherhood
constitutes Egypt's most potentially significant political opposition;

President MUBARAK has alternated between tolerating limited political
activity by the Brotherhood and blocking its influence (its members
compete as independents in elections but do not currently hold any
seats in the legislature); civic society groups are sanctioned, but
constrained in practical terms; only trade unions and professional
associations affiliated with the government are officially sanctioned;

Internet social networking groups and bloggers
El
Salvador
labor
organizations - Electrical Industry Union of El Salvador or SIES;

Federation of the Construction Industry, Similar Transport and other
activities, or FESINCONTRANS; National Confederation of Salvadoran
Workers or CNTS; National Union of Salvadoran Workers or UNTS; Port
Industry Union of El Salvador or SIPES; Salvadoran Union of
Ex-Petrolleros and Peasant Workers or USEPOC; Salvadoran Workers
Central or CTS; Workers Union of Electrical Corporation or STCEL;

business organizations - National Association of Small Enterprise or
ANEP; Salvadoran Assembly Industry Association or ASIC; Salvadoran
Industrial Association or ASI
Equatorial
Guinea
ASODEGUE

(Madrid-based pressure group for democratic reform); EG Justice
(US-based anti-corruption group)
Eritrea Eritrean
Democratic Party (EDP) [HAGOS, Mesfin]; Eritrean Islamic Jihad or EIJ
(includes Eritrean Islamic Jihad Movement or EIJM also known as the Abu
Sihel Movement); Eritrean Islamic Salvation or EIS (also known as the
Arafa Movement); Eritrean Liberation Front or ELF [ABDULLAH Muhammed];

Eritrean National Alliance or ENA (a coalition including EIJ, EIS, ELF,
and a number of ELF factions) [HERUY Tedla Biru]; Eritrean Public Forum
or EPF [ARADOM Iyob]
Ethiopia Ethiopian
People's Patriotic Front or EPPF; Ogaden National Liberation Front or
ONLF; Oromo Liberation Front or OLF [DAOUD Ibsa]
Falkland
Islands (Islas Malvinas)
Falkland
Islands Association (supports freedom of the people from external
causes)
Faroe
Islands
conservationists
Fiji Group
Against Racial Discrimination or GARD [Dr. Anirudk SINGH] (for
restoration of a democratic government); Viti Landowners Association
France Confederation
francaise democratique du travail or CFDT, left-leaning labor union
with approximately 803,000 members; Confederation francaise de
l'encadrement - Confederation generale des cadres or CFE-CGC,
independent white-collar union with 196,000 members; Confederation
francaise des travailleurs chretiens of CFTC, independent labor union
founded by Catholic workers that claims 132,000 members; Confederation
generale du travail or CGT, historically communist labor union with
approximately 700,000 members; Confederation generale du travail -

Force ouvriere or FO, independent labor union with an estimated 300,000
members; Mouvement des entreprises de France or MEDEF, employers' union
with 750,000 companies as members (claimed)



French Guiana:

conservationists; gold mining pressure groups; hunting pressure groups



Guadeloupe:

Christian Movement for the Liberation of Guadeloupe or KLPG; General
Federation of Guadeloupe Workers or CGT-G; General Union of Guadeloupe
Workers or UGTG; Movement for an Independent Guadeloupe or MPGI; The
Socialist Renewal Movement



Martinique:

Caribbean Revolutionary Alliance or ARC; Central Union for Martinique
Workers or CSTM; Frantz Fanon Circle; League of Workers and Peasants;

Proletarian Action Group or GAP



Reunion:

NA
French
Polynesia
NA
Gabon NA
Gambia,
The
National
Environment Agency or NEA; West African Peace Building Network-Gambian
Chapter or WANEB-GAMBIA; Youth Employment Network Gambia or YENGambia



other:

special needs group advocates; teachers and principals
Georgia separatists
in the occupied regions of Abkhazia and South Ossetia
Germany business
associations and employers' organizations; trade unions; religious,
immigrant, expellee, and veterans groups
Ghana Christian
Aid (water rights); Committee for Joint Action or CJA (education
reform); National Coalition Against the Privatization of Water or CAP
(water rights); Oxfam (water rights); Public Citizen (water rights);

Students Coalition Against EPA [Kwabena Ososukene OKAI] (education

reform); Third World Network (education reform)
Gibraltar Chamber of
Commerce; Gibraltar Representatives Organization; Women's Association
Greece Civil
Servants Confederation or ADEDY [Spyros PAPASPYROS]; Federation of
Greek Industries or SEV [Dimitris DASKALOPOULOS]; General Confederation
of Greek Workers or GSEE [Ioannis PANAGOPOULOS]
Greenland other:

conservationists;

environmentalists
Grenada Committee
for Human Rights in Grenada or CHRG; New Jewel Movement Support Group;

The British Grenada Friendship Society; The New Jewel 19 Committee
Guam Guam
Federation of Teachers' Union; Guam Waterworks Authority Workers



other:

activists; indigenous groups
Guatemala Alliance
Against Impunity or AI (which includes among others Center for Legal
Action on Human Rights (CALDH), and Family and Friends of the
Disappeared of Guatemala (FAMDEGUA)); Agrarian Owners Group or UNAGRO;

Committee for Campesino Unity or CUC; Coordinating Committee of
Agricultural, Commercial, Industrial, and Financial Associations or
CACIF (which includes among others the Agrarian Chamber (CAMAGRO) and
the Industry Chamber of Guatemala (CIG)); Guatemalan Chamber of
Commerce (Camara de Comercio); International Commission Against
Impunity in Guatemala or CICIG; Mutual Support Group or GAM; Movimiento
PRO-Justicia
Guernsey Stop
Traffic Endangering Pedestrian Safety or STEPS; No More Masts [Colin
FALLAIZE]
Guinea National
Confederation of Guinean Workers-Labor Union of Guinean Workers or
CNTG-USTG Alliance (includes National Confederation of Guinean Workers
or CNTG and Labor Union of Guinean Workers or USTG); Syndicate of
Guinean Teachers and Researchers or SLECG
Guinea-Bissau NA
Guyana Amerindian
People's Association; Guyana Bar Association; Guyana Citizens
Initiative; Guyana Human Rights Association; Guyana Public Service
Union or GPSU; Private Sector Commission; Trades Union Congress
Haiti Autonomous
Organizations of Haitian Workers or CATH [Fignole ST-CYR];

Confederation of Haitian Workers or CTH; Economic Forum of the Private
Sector or EF [Reginald BOULOS]; Federation of Workers Trade Unions or
FOS; General Organization of Independent Haitian Workers [Patrick
NUMAS]; Grand-Anse Resistance Committee, or KOREGA; The Haitian
Association of Industries or ADIH [Georges SASSINE]; National Popular
Assembly or APN; Papaye Peasants Movement or MPP [Chavannes
JEAN-BAPTISTE]; Popular Organizations Gathering Power or PROP;

Protestant Federation of Haiti; Roman Catholic Church
Holy
See (Vatican City)
none
(exclusive of influence exercised by church officers)
Honduras Beverage
and Related Industries Syndicate or STIBYS; Committee for the Defense
of Human Rights in Honduras or CODEH; Confederation of Honduran Workers
or CTH; Coordinating Committee of Popular Organizations or CCOP;

General Workers Confederation or CGT; Honduran Council of Private
Enterprise or COHEP; National Association of Honduran Campesinos or
ANACH; National Union of Campesinos or UNC; Popular Bloc or BP; United
Confederation of Honduran Workers or CUTH; United Farm Workers'
Movement of the Aguan (MUCA)
Hong
Kong
Chinese
General Chamber of Commerce (pro-China); Chinese Manufacturers'
Association of Hong Kong; Confederation of Trade Unions or CTU
(pro-democracy) [LEE Cheuk-yan, general secretary]; Federation of Hong
Kong Industries; Federation of Trade Unions or FTU (pro-China) [CHENG
Yiu-tong, executive councilor]; Hong Kong Alliance in Support of the
Patriotic Democratic Movement in China [LEE Cheuk-yan, chairman]; Hong
Kong and Kowloon Trade Union Council (pro-Taiwan); Hong Kong General
Chamber of Commerce; Hong Kong Professional Teachers' Union [FUNG
Wai-wah, president]; Neighborhood and Workers' Service Center or NWSC
[LEUNG Yiu-chung, LegCo member] (pro-democracy); Civic Act-up [Cyd HO
Sau-lan, LegCo member] (pro-democracy)
Hungary Air Work
Group (works to reduce air pollution in towns and cities); Danube
Circle (protests the building of the Gabchikovo-Nagymaros dam); Fourth
Republic (Negyedik Koztarsasag) or 4K! (anti-Orban, pro-democracy
Facebook movement emerged from a Facebook group, One Million for
Freedom of the Press, and plans to form a leftist political party);

Green Future (protests the impact of lead contamination of local
factory on health of the people); Hungarian Civil Liberties Union
(Tarsasag a Szabadsagjogokert) or TASZ (freedom of expression,
information privacy); Hungarian Helsinki Committee (asylum seekers'
rights, human rights in law enforcement and the judicial system);

environmentalists: Hungarian Ornithological and Nature Conservation
Society (Magyar Madartani Egyesulet) or MME; Green Alternative (Zold
Alternativa)
India All Parties
Hurriyat Conference in the Kashmir Valley (separatist group); Bajrang
Dal (religious organization); India Against Corruption [Anna HAZAREI];

Jamiat Ulema-e Hind (religious organization); Rashtriya Swayamsevak
Sangh [Mohan BHAGWAT] (religious organization); Vishwa Hindu Parishad
[Ashok SINGHAL] (religious organization)



other:

numerous religious or militant/chauvinistic organizations; various
separatist groups seeking greater communal and/or regional autonomy;

hundreds of social reform, anti-corruption, and environmental groups at
state and local level
Indonesia Commission

for the "Disappeared" and Victims of Violence or KontraS; Indonesia
Corruption Watch or ICW; Indonesian Forum for the Environment or WALHI;

Islamic Defenders Front or FPI; People's Democracy Fortress or Bendera
Iran groups
that generally support the Islamic Republic:
Ansar-e
Hizballah-; Followers of the Line of the Imam and the Leader; Islamic
Coalition Party (Motalefeh); Islamic Engineers Society; Tehran Militant
Clergy Association (MCA; Ruhaniyat)



active pro-reform
student group:
Office of
Strengthening Unity (OSU)



opposition groups:

Freedom Movement of Iran; Green Path movement [Mehdi KARUBI, Mir-Hosein
MUSAVI]; Marz-e Por Gohar; National Front; various ethnic and
monarchist organizations



armed political

groups repressed by the government:


Democratic Party of Iranian Kurdistan (KDPI); Jundallah; Komala;

Mojahedin-e Khalq Organization (MEK or MKO); People's Fedayeen;

People's Free Life Party of Kurdistan (PJAK)
Iraq Sunni

militias; Shia militias, some associated with political parties
Ireland Families
Acting for Innocent Relatives or FAIR [Brian MCCONNELL] (seek
compensation for victims of violence); Families Against Intimidation
and Terror or FAIT (oppose terrorism); Gaeltacht Civil Rights Campaign
(Coiste Cearta Sibhialta na Gaeilge) or CCSG (encourages the use of the
Irish language and campaigns for greater civil rights in Irish speaking
areas); Iona Institute [David QUINN] (a conservative Catholic think
tank); Irish Anti-War Movement [Richard BOYD BARRETT] (campaigns
against wars around the world); Irish Republican Army or IRA (terrorist
group); Keep Ireland Open (environmental group); Midland Railway Action
Group or MRAG [Willie ALLEN] (transportation promoters); Peace and
Neutrality Alliance [Roger COLE] (campaigns to protect Irish

neutrality); Rail Users Ireland (formerly the Platform 11 -
transportation promoters); 32 Country Sovereignty Movement or 32CSM
(supports a fully sovereign Ireland); Ulster Defence Association or UDA
(terrorist group)
Isle
of Man
Alliance
for Progressive Government or APG (a government watchdog); Mec Vannin
(political party advocating a sovereign state and environment
policies); note - has only had one member elected to the Tynwald
Israel B'Tselem [Jessica MONTELL, Executive
Director] monitors human rights abuses;

Peace Now [Yariv OPPENHEIMER, Secretary General] supports territorial
concessions in the West Bank and Gaza Strip; YESHA Council of
Settlements [Danny DAYAN, Chairman] promotes settler interests and
opposes territorial compromise; Breaking the Silence [Yehuda SHAUL,
Executive Director] collects testimonies from soldiers who served in
the West Bank and Gaza Strip
Italy manufacturers
and merchants associations - Confcommercio; Confindustria; organized
farm groups - Confcoltivatori; Confagricoltura; Roman Catholic Church;

three major trade union confederations - Confederazione Generale
Italiana del Lavoro or CGIL [Susanna CAMUSSO] which is left wing;

Confederazione Italiana dei Sindacati Lavoratori or CISL [Raffaele
BONANNI], which is Roman Catholic centrist; Unione Italiana del Lavoro
or UIL [Luigi ANGELETTI] which is lay centrist)
Jamaica New
Beginnings Movement or NBM; Rastafarians (black religious/racial
cultists, pan-Africanists)
Japan other:

business groups;

trade unions
Jersey Institute
of Directors, Jersey branch (provides business support); Jersey
Hospitality Association Robert JONES] (trade association); Jersey
Rights Association [David ROTHERHAM] (human rights); La Societe
Jersiaise (education and conservation group); Progress Jersey [Daren
O'TOOLE, Gino RISOLI] (human rights); Royal Jersey Agriculture and
Horticultural Society or RJA&HS (development and management o
the Jersey breed of cattle); Save Jersey's Heritage (protects heritage
through building preservation)
Jordan 15 April
Movement [Mohammad SUNEID, chairman]; 1952 Constitution Movement; 24
March Movement [Mu'az al-KHAWALIDAH, Mu'adh al-KHAWALIDAH, Abdel Rahman
HASANEIN, spokespersons]; Anti-Normalization Committee [Hamzah MANSOUR,
chairman]; Economic and Social Association of Retired Servicemen and
Veterans or ESARSV [Abdulsalam al-HASSANAT, chairman]; Group of 36;

Higher Coordination Committee of Opposition Parties [Said DIAB]; Higher
National Committee for Military Retirees or HNCMR [Ali al-HABASHNEH,
chairman]; Jordan Bar Association [Saleh al-ARMUTI, chairman];

Jordanian Campaign for Change or Jayin; Jordanian Muslim Brotherhood
[Dr. Hamam SAID, controller general]; Jordanian Press Association [Sayf
al-SHARIF, president]; National Front for Reform or NFR [Ahmad OBEIDAT,
chairman]; Popular Gathering for Reform; Professional Associations
Council [Abd al-Hadi al-FALAHAT, chairman]; Sons of Jordan
Kazakhstan Adil-Soz
[Tamara KALEYEVA]; Almaty Helsinki Committee [Ninel FOKINA];

Confederation of Free Trade Unions [Sergei BELKIN]; For Fair Elections
[Yevgeniy ZHOVTIS, Sabit ZHUSUPOV, Sergey DUVANOV, Ibrash NUSUPBAYEV];

Kazakhstan International Bureau on Human Rights [Yevgeniy ZHOVTIS,
executive director]; Pan-National Social Democratic Party of Kazakhstan
Zharmakhan TUYAKBAY]; Pensioners Movement or Pokoleniye [Irina
SAVOSTINA, chairwoman]; Republican Network of International Monitors
Daniyar LIVAZOV]; Transparency International Sergey ZLOTNIKOV]
Kenya Council of
Islamic Preachers of Kenya or CIPK [Sheikh Idris MOHAMMED]; Kenya Human
Rights Commission [L. Muthoni WANYEKI]; Muslim Human Rights Forum
[Ali-Amin KIMATHI]; National Muslim Leaders Forum or NAMLEF [Abdullahi
ABDI]; Protestant National Council of Churches of Kenya or NCCK [Canon
Peter Karanja MWANGI]; Roman Catholic and other Christian churches;

Supreme Council of Kenya Muslims or SUPKEM Shaykh Abdul Gafur
al-BUSAIDY]



other:

labor unions
Kiribati NA
Korea,
North
none
Korea,
South
Federation
of Korean Industries; Federation of Korean Trade Unions; Korean
Confederation of Trade Unions; Korean National Council of Churches;

Korean Traders Association; Korean Veterans' Association; National
Council of Labor Unions; National Democratic Alliance of Korea;

National Federation of Farmers' Associations; National Federation of
Student Associations
Kosovo Council for
the Defense of Human Rights and Freedom (human rights); Organization
for Democracy, Anti-Corruption and Dignity Rise! [Avni ZOGIANI]; Serb
National Council (SNV); The Speak Up Movement [Ramadan ILAZI]
Kuwait other:

Islamists; merchants;

political groups; secular liberals and pro-governmental deputies; Shia
activists; tribal groups
Kyrgyzstan Adilet
Legal Clinic [Cholpon JAKUPOVA]; Coalition for Democracy and Civil
Society [Dinara OSHURAKHUNOVA]; Interbilim [Asiya SASYKBAEVA]
Laos NA
Latvia Free Trade
Union Confederation of Latvia [Peteris KRIGERS], Employers'

Confederation of Latvia [Vitalijs GAVRILOVS], Farmers' Parliamen [Juris
LAZDINS]
Lebanon Maronite
Church [Patriarch Nasrallah SFAYR]



other:

note - most sects retain militias and a number of militant groups

operate in Palestinian refugee camps
Lesotho Media

Institute of Southern Africa, Lesotho chapter [Thabang MATJAMA] (pushes
for media freedom)
Liberia other:

demobilized former
military officers
Libya NA
Liechtenstein NA
Luxembourg ABBL

(bankers' association); ALEBA (financial sector trade union); Centrale
Paysanne (federation of agricultural producers); CEP (professional
sector chamber); CGFP (trade union representing civil service); Chambre
de Commerce (Chamber of Commerce); Chambre des Metiers (Chamber of
Artisans); FEDIL (federation of industrialists); Greenpeace
(environment protection); LCGP (center-right trade union); Mouvement
Ecologique (protection of ecology); OGBL (center-left trade union)
Macau Civic Power
[Agnes LAM lok-fong]; Macau New Chinese Youth Association [LEONG
Sin-man]; Macau Society of Tourism and Entertainment or STDM [Stanley
HO]; Macau Worker's Union [HO Heng-kuok]; Union for Democracy
Development [Antonio NG Kuok-cheong]
Macedonia Federation
of Free Trade Unions [Rasko MISHKOSKI]; Federation of Trade Unions
[Zivko MITREVSKI]; Trade Union of Education, Science and Culture [Yakim
NEDELKOV]
Madagascar Committee
for the Defense of Truth and Justice or KMMR; Committee for National
Reconciliation or CRN [Albert Zafy]; National Council of Christian
Churches or FFKM
Malawi Agri-Ecology
Media (agriculture and environmental group); Council for NGOs in Malawi
or CONGOMA (human rights, democracy, and development); Human Rights
Consultative Committee or HRCC (human rights); Malawi Law Society
(human rights and law reform); Malawi Movement for the Restoration of
Democracy or MMRD (acts to restore and maintain democracy); Public
Affairs Committee or PAC (promotes democracy, development, peace and
unity)
Malaysia Bar
Council; BERSIH (electoral reform coalition); PEMBELA (Muslim NGO
coalition); PERKASA (defense of Malay rights)



other:

religious groups; women's groups; youth groups
Maldives other:

various unregistered

political parties
Mali other:

the army; Islamic
authorities; rebels in the northern region; state-run cotton company
CMDT; tuaregs
Malta Alleanza Liberali-Demokratika
Maltra or ALDM (for divorce, abortion, gay marriage, the rights
existent in other EU member states); Alternattiva Demokratika
(pro-environment); Flimkien Ghal-Ambjent Ahjar (pro-environment);
Ghazda tal-Konsumaturi (consumer rights)



other:

environmentalists
Marshall
Islands
NA
Mauritania General
Confederation of Mauritanian Workers or CGTM [Abdallahi Ould MOHAMED,
secretary general]; Independent Confederation of Mauritanian Workers or
CLTM [Samory Ould BEYE]; Mauritanian Workers Union or UTM [Mohamed Ely
Ould BRAHIM, secretary general]



other:

Arab nationalists; Ba'thists; Islamists
Mauritius other:

various labor unions
Mexico Businessmen's
Coordinating Council or CCE; Confederation of Employers of the Mexican
Republic or COPARMEX; Confederation of Industrial Chambers or CONCAMIN;

Confederation of Mexican Workers or CTM; Confederation of National
Chambers of Commerce or CONCANACO; Coordinator for Foreign Trade
Business Organizations or COECE; Federation of Unions Providing Goods
and Services or FESEBES; National Chamber of Transformation Industries
or CANACINTRA; National Peasant Confederation or CNC; National Small
Business Chamber or CANACOPE; National Syndicate of Education Workers
or SNTE; National Union of Workers or UNT; Popular Assembly of the
People of Oaxaca or APPO; Roman Catholic Church
Micronesia,
Federated States of
NA
Moldova NA
Monaco NA
Mongolia other:

human rights groups;

women's groups
Montserrat NA
Morocco Democratic
Confederation of Labor or CDT [Noubir AMAOUI]; General Union of
Moroccan Workers or UGTM [Abderrazzak AFILAL]; Moroccan Employers
Association or CGEM [Hassan CHAMI]; National Labor Union of Morocco or
UNMT [Abdelslam MAATI]; Union of Moroccan Workers or UMT [Mahjoub
BENSEDDIK]
Mozambique Mozambican
League of Human Rights (Liga Mocambicana dos Direitos Humanos) or LDH

[Alice MABOTE, president]
Namibia National
Society for Human Rights or NSHR (NAMRIGHTS as of 2010); various labor
unions
Nauru Woman
Information and News Agency (women's issues)
Nepal other:

several small armed
Madhesi groups along the southern border with India; a variety of
groups advocating regional autonomy for individual ethnic groups
Netherlands Christian
Trade Union Federation or CNV [Jaap SMIT]; Confederation of Netherlands
Industry and Employers or VNO-NCW [Bernard WIENTJES]; Federation for
Small and Medium-sized businesses or MKB [Loek HERMANS]; Netherlands
Trade Union Federation or FNV [Agnes JONGERIUS]; Social Economic
Council or SER [Alexander RINNOOY KAN]; Trade Union Federation of
Middle and High Personnel or MHP [Richard STEENBORG]
New
Caledonia
NA
New
Zealand
Women's

Electoral Lobby or WEL



other:

apartheid groups; civil rights groups; farmers groups; Maori; nuclear
weapons groups; women's rights groups
Nicaragua National
Workers Front or FNT (a Sandinista umbrella group of eight labor unions
including: Farm Workers Association or ATC, Health Workers Federation
or FETASALUD, Heroes and Martyrs Confederation of Professional
Associations or CONAPRO, National Association of Educators of Nicaragua
or ANDEN, National Union of Employees or UNE, National Union of Farmers
and Ranchers or UNAG, Sandinista Workers Central or CST, and Union of
Journalists of Nicaragua or UPN); Permanent Congress of Workers or CPT
(an umbrella group of four non-Sandinista labor unions including:

Autonomous Nicaraguan Workers Central or CTN-A, Confederation of Labor
Unification or CUS, Independent General Confederation of Labor or
CGT-I, and Labor Action and Unity Central or CAUS); Nicaraguan Workers'
Central or CTN (an independent labor union); Superior Council of
Private Enterprise or COSEP (a confederation of business groups)
Niger The
Nigerien Movement for Justice or MNJ, a predominantly Tuareg rebel group
Nigeria Academic
Staff Union for Universities or ASUU; Campaign for Democracy or CD;

Civil Liberties Organization or CLO; Committee for the Defense of Human
Rights or CDHR; Constitutional Right Project or CRP; Human Right
Africa; National Association of Democratic Lawyers or NADL; National
Association of Nigerian Students or NANS; Nigerian Bar Association or
NBA; Nigerian Labor Congress or NLC; Nigerian Medical Association or
NMA; the press; Universal Defenders of Democracy or UDD
Niue NA
Norfolk
Island
none
Northern
Mariana Islands
NA
Norway Confederation
of Norwegian Enterprise (Naeringslivets Hovedorganisasjon) or NHO
President Kristin SKOGEN LUND; CEO John Gordon BERNANDER]; Norwegian
Association of the Disabled; Norwegian Confederation of Trade Unions
(Landsorganisasjonen i Norge) or LO [Roar FLATHEN]



other:

environmental groups; media; digital privacy movements
Oman none
Pakistan other:

military (most
important political force); ulema (clergy); landowners; industrialists;

small merchants
Palau NA
Panama Chamber of
Commerce; Concertacion Nacional (mechanism for government of Panama to
formally dialogue with representatives of civil society); National
Council of Organized Workers or CONATO; National Council of Private
Enterprise or CONEP; National Union of Construction and Similar Workers
(SUNTRACS); Panamanian Association of Business Executives or APEDE;

Panamanian Industrialists Society or SIP; Workers Confederation of the
Republic of Panama or CTRP
Papua
New Guinea
Centre for
Environment Law and Community Rights or Celcor [Damien ASE]; Community
Coalition Against Corruption; National Council of Women; Transparency
International PNG
Paraguay Ahorristas Estafados or AE;
National Coordinating Board of Campesino Organizations or MCNOC [Luis
AGUAYO]; National Federation of Campesinos or FNC [Odilon ESPINOLA];
National Workers Central or CNT [Secretary General Juan TORRALES];
Paraguayan Workers Confederation or CPT; Roman Catholic Church; Unitary
Workers Central or CUT [Jorge Guzman ALVARENGA Malgarejo]
Peru General
Workers Confederation of Peru (Confederacion General de Trabajadores
del Peru) or CGTP [Mario HUAMAN]; Shining Path (Sendero Luminoso) or SL
[Abimael GUZMAN Reynoso (imprisoned), Victor QUISPE Palomino top leader
at-large)] (leftist guerrilla group)
Philippines ABONO
[Robert ESTRELLA]; AKBAYAN [Walden BELLO]; An Waray [Florencio NOEL];

Anak Mindanao [Mujiv HATAMIN]; ANAKPAWIS [Rafael MARIANO]; ARC [Narciso
SANTIAGO III]; Association of Philippine Electric Cooperatives (APEC)
[Ponciano PAYUYO]; A TEACHER [Mariano PIAMONTE]; BAGON HENERASYON
[Bernadette HERRERA-DY]; Bayan Muna [Teodoro CASINO, Jr.]; Black and
White Movement [Vicente ROMANO]; BUHAY [Rene VELARDE]; BUTIL [Leonila
CHAVEZ]; CIBAC [Cinchoa CRUZ-GONZALES]; COOP-NATCO [Jose PING-AY];

GABRIELA [Luzviminda ILAGAN]; KABATAAN [Raymon PALATINO]; Kilosbayan
[Jovito SALONGA]; YACAP [Carol LOPEZ]
Pitcairn
Islands
none
Poland All Poland
Trade Union Alliance or OPZZ (trade union) [Jan GUZ]; Roman Catholic
Church [Cardinal Stanislaw DZIWISZ, Archbishop Jozef MICHALIK];

Solidarity Trade Union [Piotr DUDA]
Portugal Associação
dos Oficiais das Forças Armadas (AOFA) [Coronel Oereira
CRACEL]; A deseperada Geração á Rasca
(movimento de juventude que protesta contra os baixos rendimentos,
protesta contra o desemprego e protesta contra o trabalho
precário);



A União Geral de Traidores (UGT) [João
Proença] (Judas);



Confederação Geral de Trabalhadores Portugueses
(CGTP) [Armenio Carlos]



TugaLeaks, um Web site que luta por transparência e
democracia, é alvo a abater

Armed Forces Officers' Association (AOFA) [Colonel Pereira CRACEL];



the Desperate Generation (youth movement protesting against low wages,
precarious labor conditions, and unemployment);



the General Workers Union or General Confederation of Portuguese
Workers (UGT) [Joao PROENCA];

Portuguese National Workers' Conference (CGTP) [Armenio CARLOS];



TugaLeaks (a Web site that has become a mouthpiece for publicizing
diverse protest action)



other:

the media; labor unions
Puerto Rico Boricua
Popular Army or EPB (a revolutionary group also known as Los
Macheteros); note - the following radical groups are considered dormant
by Federal law enforcement: Armed Forces for National Liberation or
FALN, Armed Forces of Popular Resistance, Volunteers of the Puerto
Rican Revolution
Qatar none
Romania other:

various human rights
and professional associations
Russia Association
of Citizens with Initiative of Russia (TIGR); Confederation of Labor of
Russia (KTR); Federation of Independent Labor Unions of Russia; Freedom
of Choice Interregional Organization of Automobilists; Glasnost Defense
Foundation; Golos Association in Defense of Voters' Rights; Greenpeace
Russia; Human Rights Watch (Russian chapter); Institute for Collective
Action; Memorial (human rights group); Movement Against Illegal
Migration; Pamjat (preservation of historical monuments and recording
of history); PARNAS; Russian Orthodox Church; Russian Federation of Car
Owners; Russian-Chechen Friendship Society; Solidarnost; SOVA
Analytical-Information Center; Union of the Committees of Soldiers'

Mothers; World Wildlife Fund (Russian chapter)
Rwanda IBUKA
(association of genocide survivors)
Saint
Barthelemy
The Marine
Reserve (protection of fish); Rotary Club
Saint
Helena, Ascension, and Tristan da Cunha
other:

private sector;

unions
Saint
Kitts and Nevis
NA
Saint
Lucia
NA
Saint
Martin
NA
Saint
Pierre and Miquelon
NA
Saint
Vincent and the Grenadines
NA
Samoa NA
San
Marino
NA
Sao
Tome and Principe
Associação
de São Tomé e Príncepe ONG

Association of Sao Tome and Principe NGOs or FONG



other:

the media
Saudi
Arabia
Ansar Al

Marah (supports women's rights)



other:

gas companies; religious groups
Senegal other:

labor; students; Sufi
brotherhoods, including the Mourides and Tidjanes; teachers
Serbia Obraz
(Orthodox clero-fascist organization); 1389 (Serbian nationalist
movement); Dveri (Movement for the Life of Serbia)
Seychelles RomanCatholic
Church



other:

trade unions
Sierra
Leone
other:

student unions; trade
unions
Singapore none
Slovakia Association
of Towns and Villages or ZMOS; Confederation of Trade Unions or KOZ;

Entrepreneurs Association of Slovakia or ZPS; Federation of Employers'
Associations of the Slovak Republic; Medical Trade Association or LOZ;

National Union of Employers or RUZ; Slovak Chamber of Commerce
andIndustry or SOPK; The Business Alliance of Slovak ia or PAS
Slovenia Slovenian
Roma Association [Jozek Horvat MUC]



other:

Catholic Church
Solomon
Islands
Isatabu
Freedom Movement (IFM); Malaita Eagle Force (MEF); note - these rival
armed ethnic factions crippled the Solomon Islands in a wave of
violence from 1999 to 2003
Somalia other:

numerous clan and
sub-clan factions exist both in support and in opposition to the
transitional government
South
Africa
Congress of
South African Trade Unions or COSATU [Zwelinzima VAVI, general
secretary]; South African Communist Party or SACP [Blade NZIMANDE,
general secretary]; South African National Civics Organization or SANCO
[Mlungisi HLONGWANE, national president]



note:

note - COSATU and SACP are in a formal alliance with the ANC
Spain Association
for Victims of Terrorism or AVT (grassroots organization devoted
primarily to supporting victims of the Basque Fatherland and Liberty
(ETA) terrorist organization); 15-M or 15 May protest movement, which
is also known as the Indignados, Spanish for the "indignant ones" (a
loose association of grassroots organizations that advocate for greater
accountability and transparency in Spanish politics, increased social
justice and job creation); Socialist General Union of Workers or UGT
and the smaller independent Workers Syndical Union or USO; Trade Union
Confederation of Workers' Commissions or CC.OO.



other:

business and landowning interests; Catholic Church; free labor unions
(authorized in April 1977); university students
Sri
Lanka
Liberation
Tigers of Tamil Eelam or LTTE [P. SIVAPARAN, Chief of International
Secretariat; V. RUDRAKUMARAN, legal advisor]; note - this insurgent
group suffered military defeat in May 2009; some cadres remain
scattered throughout country, but there have not been any incidents in
Sri Lanka since May 2009



other:

Buddhist clergy; labor unions; hard-line nationalist Sinhalese groups
such as the National Movement Against Terrorism; Sinhalese Buddhist lay
groups
Sudan Umma Party
[SADIQ Siddiq al-Mahdi]; Popular Congress Party or PCP [Hassan
al-TURABI]; Democratic Unionist Party [Muhammad Uthman al-Mirghani];

Darfur rebel groups including the Justice and Equality Movement or JEM
[Khalil IBRAHIM] and the Sudan Liberation Movement or SLM [various
factional leaders]
Suriname Association
of Indigenous Village Chiefs [Ricardo PANE]; Association of Saramaccan
Authorities or Maroon [Head Captain WASE]; Women's Parliament Forum or
PVF [Iris GILLIAD]
Svalbard NA
Swaziland Swaziland
Democracy Campaign; Swaziland Federation of Trade Unions; Swaziland
Solidarity Network or SSN
Sweden Children's
Rights in Society; Swedish Confederation of Professional Employees or
TCO; Swedish Trade Union Confederation (Landsorganisationen) or LO
[Wanja LUNDBY-WEDIN]



other:

environmental groups; media
Switzerland NA
Syria Arab Human
Rights Organization in Syria or AHRO; Damascus Declaration Group (a
broad alliance of secular, religious, and Kurdish opposition groups);

National Salvation Front (alliance between former Vice President Abd
al-Halim KHADDAM and other small opposition groups in exile; formerly
included the Syrian Muslim Brotherhood); Syrian Center for Media and
Freedom of Expression [Mazin DARWISH]; Syrian Human Rights Organization
[Muhanad al-HASANI]; Syrian Human Rights Society or HRAS [Fayez FAWAZ];

Syrian Muslim Brotherhood or SMB [Muhammad Riyad al-SHAQFAH] (operates
in exile in London)
Taiwan environmental
groups; independence movement; various business groups



note:

debate on Taiwan independence has become acceptable within the
mainstream of domestic politics on Taiwan; public opinion polls
consistently show a substantial majority of Taiwan people supports
maintaining Taiwan's status quo for the foreseeable future; advocates
of Taiwan independence oppose the stand that the island will eventually
unify with mainland China; advocates of eventual unification predicate
their goal on the democratic transformation of the mainland
Tajikistan splinter
parties recognized by the government but not by the base of the party:
Democratic
Party or DPT [Masud SOBIROV] (splintered from ISKANDAROV's DPT);

Socialist Party or SPT [Abduhalim GHAFFOROV] (splintered from NARZIEV's
SPT)



unregistered
political parties:


Progressive Party [Sulton QUVVATOV]; Unity Party [Hikmatullo SAIDOV]
Tanzania Economic
and Social Research Foundation or ESRF; Free Zanzibar; Tanzania Media
Women's Association or TAMWA
Thailand Multicolor
Group; People's Alliance for Democracy or PAD; United Front for
Democracy Against Dictatorship or UDD
Timor-Leste NA
Togo NA
Tokelau none
Tonga Human
Rights and Democracy Movement Tonga or HRDMT [Rev. Simote VEA,
chairman]; Public Servant's Association [Finau TUTONE]
Trinidad
and Tobago
Jamaat-al
Muslimeen [Yasin ABU BAKR]
Tunisia 18 October
Group [collective leadership]; Tunisian League for Human Rights or LTDH
[Mokhtar TRIFI]
Turkey Confederation
of Businessmen and Industrialists of Turkey or TUSKON [Rizanur MERAL];

Confederation of Public Sector Unions or KESK [Lami OZGEN];

Confederation of Revolutionary Workers Unions or DISK [Tayfun GORGUN];

Independent Industrialists' and Businessmen's Association or MUSIAD
[Omer Cihad VARDAN]; Moral Rights Workers Union or Hak-Is [Mahmut
ARSLAN]; Turkish Confederation of Employers' Unions or TISK [Tugrul
KUDATGOBILIK]; Turkish Confederation of Labor or Turk-Is [Mustafa
KUMLU]; Turkish Confederation of Tradesmen and Craftsmen or TESK
[Bendevi PALANDOKEN]; Turkish Industrialists' and Businessmen's
Association or TUSIAD [Umit BOYNER]; Turkish Union of Chambers of
Commerce and Commodity Exchanges or TOBB [M. Rifat HISARCIKLIOGLU]
Turkmenistan none
Turks
and Caicos Islands
NA
Tuvalu none
Uganda Lord's
Resistance Army or LRA [Joseph KONY]; Parliamentary Advocacy Forum or
PAFO; National Association of Women Organizations in Uganda or NAWOU
[Florence NEKYON]; The Ugandan Coalition for Political Accountability
to Women or COPAW
Ukraine Committee
of Voters of Ukraine [Aleksandr CHERNENKO]; OPORA [Olha AIVAZOVSKA]
United
Arab Emirates
NA
United
Kingdom
Campaign
for Nuclear Disarmament; Confederation of British Industry; National
Farmers' Union; Trades Union Congress
United
States
environmentalists;

business groups; labor unions; churches; ethnic groups; political
action committees or PAC; health groups; education groups; civic
groups; youth groups; transportation groups; agricultural groups;

veterans groups; women's groups; reform lobbies
Uruguay Chamber of
Commerce and Export of Agriproducts; Chamber of Industries
(manufacturer's association); Exporters Union of Uruguay; National
Chamber of Commerce and Services; PIT/CNT (powerful federation of
Uruguayan Unions - umbrella labor organization); Rural Association of
Uruguay (rancher's association); Uruguayan Network of Political Women



other:

Catholic Church; students
Uzbekistan there are
no significant opposition political parties or pressure groups
operating in Uzbekistan
Vanuatu NA
Venezuela Bolivarian
and Socialist Workers' Union (a ruling party labor union);

Confederacion Venezolana de Industriales or Coindustria (a conservative
business group); Consejos Comunales (pro-Chavez local cooperatives);

FEDECAMARAS (a conservative business group); Union of Oil Workers of
Venezuela or FUTPV; Venezuelan Confederation of Workers or CTV
(opposition-oriented labor organization); various civil society groups
and human rights organizations
Vietnam 8406 Bloc;

Democratic Party of Vietnam or DPV; People's Democratic Party Vietnam
or PDP-VN; Alliance for Democracy



note:

these groups advocate democracy but are not recognized by the
government
Virgin
Islands
NA
Wallis
and Futuna
NA
Western Sahara none
Yemen Muslim
Brotherhood; Women National Committee



other:

conservative tribal groups; Huthis, southern secessionist groups;

al-Qa'ida in the Arabian Peninsula (AQAP)
Zambia NA
Zimbabwe Crisis in
Zimbabwe Coalition; National Constitutional Assembly or NCA [Lovemore
MADHUKU]; Women of Zimbabwe Arise or WOZA [Jenny WILLIAMS]; Zimbabwe
Congress of Trade Unions or ZCTU [Wellington CHIBEBE]




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