... Julgo que depois destes malabarismos, os currículos das pessoas com funções políticas activas com o propósito de praticar o bem comum de uma nação, devem ser exigidos e publicados em Diário da Republica para qualquer cidadão poder consultar e certificar-se das habilitações de cada politico. Não deve ser uma opção, mas uma condição contemplada numa lei própria para o efeito, pois como sabemos, nenhum trabalhador é admitido numa função numa empresa, sem referências e/ou curriculo académico/profissional. será verdade que o PS está "calado" neste caso da licenciatura de M. Relvas porque o Irmão Maçon António Seguro dos Bancos (da Universidade Lusófona) foi um dos professores envolvido no processo?...

Organização Global da Máfia Financeira Internacioal Grupo dos Trinta Group Of Thirty Rockefeller Boys Cartel



O Grupo dos Trinta, frequentemente abreviado G30, é uma organização internacional privada sem fins lucrativos, composta por representantes do mais alto nível do mundo financeiro, vindos dos sectores público e privado e dos meios académicos. Tem por objectivo aprofundar o entendimento das questões financeiras e económicas, e analisar as repercussões internacionais das decisões tomadas nos sectores público e privado.

O grupo tem trinta membros entre os quais se incluem líderes de grandes bancos privados e centrais, assim como membros dos meios académicos e de instituições internacionais. Em 2008 contavam-se entre os seus membros Paul Volcker (ex-FED), Jacob A. Frenkel (AIG), Jean-Claude Trichet (BCE), Zhou Xiaochuan (Banco da China), Yutaka Yamaguchi (Banco do Japão), Andrew Crockett (JP Morgan Chase) e Paul Krugman. Alan Greenspan também foi membro deste grupo.

Entre as suas áreas de interesse, contam-se:
Mercado de câmbios, divisas, etc.
Mercado de capitais
Instituições financeiras internacionais
Os bancos centrais e a supervisão dos serviços financeiros e dos mercados
Temas macroeconómicos como os mercados de produtos e do trabalho, etc.

O grupo é notório por advogar mudanças na compensação (clearing) e liquidação (settlement) globais. Tem duas reuniões principais por ano e também organiza seminários, simpósios e grupos de estudo. Está localizado em Washington D.C.


Grupo dos Trinta
http://www.group30.org/
O Grupo dos Trinta, ou abreviado para G30, é um organismo internacional de líderes financeiros e acadêmicos, que visa aprofundar a compreensão das questões económicas e financeiras e examinar as consequências das decisões feitas nos setores público e privado relacionados com questões de teses macroeconómicas.

Rockefeller Cartel



Consultative
Group on International Economic and Monetary Affairs, Inc.
Established 1978
Chairman Jean-Claude
Trichet
Executive Director Stuart
P. M. Mackintosh
Staff 4
Budget $448k (FY07)
Members 30
Location Washington,
D.C.
Address
1726 M Street,
NW, Suite 200
Washington, DC 20036 USA
Website www.group30.org

Dentro das áreas temáticas do interesse do Grupo dos Trinta, incluem-se:


Câmbio, moeda, etc
Os mercados internacionais de capital
As instituições financeiras internacionais
Os bancos centrais e supervisão dos serviços financeiros e mercados
Macroeconômico questões zoals produto e mercados de trabalho, etc
O grupo é conhecido por sua defesa de mudanças na compensação global e liquidação.

O grupo é composto por 30 membros e inclui os chefes dos principais bancos privados e bancos centrais, bem como membros de universidades e instituições internacionais. O G30 realiza duas reuniões plenárias anuais e também organiza seminários, simpósios e grupos de estudo. O G30 tem a sede em Washington, DC

O Grupo dos Trinta foi fundado em 1978 por Geoffrey Bell numa iniciativa da Fundação Rockefeller, Todos os que forneceram o capital inicial também para o corpo. Seu primeiro presidente foi Johannes Witteveen, o ex-diretor-gerente do Fundo Monetário Internacional. O actual Presidente do G30 é Jean-Claude Trichet. [2] O actual presidente do Conselho de Curadores é Frenkel Jacob, e Paul Volcker é Presidente Emérito.

O Grupo Bellagio, formada por economista austríaco Fritz Machlup, foi o antecessor imediato para o Grupo dos Trinta. [3] em 1963, para investigar problemas monetários internacionais, particularmente a crise do balanço de pagamentos Tudo que a América enfrentou Ao longo da década de 1960.

Conteúdo


1 Programas de Trabalho
1,1 em direção à governança eficaz das Instituições Financeiras
1.2 Política macroprudenciais: Abordar as coisas que não sei
1,3 Crise financeira de 2008 e suas conseqüências: como enfrentar o desafio da Dívida seguida
1,4 reforço da estabilidade financeira e Resiliência: Política macroprudenciais, Ferramentas e Sistemas para o Futuro.
1.4.1 Outras Publicações
1,5 Membership
1,6 membros seniores
1,7 membros honorários
1,8 Outros ex-membros
2 Ver também
3 Referências
4 Ligações externas

História do Grupo dos Trinta


O Grupo dos Trinta foi fundado em 1978 por Geoffrey Bell, por iniciativa da Fundação Rockefeller[1] que também forneceu os fundos iniciais da organização. O primeiro presidente foi Johannes Witteveen, ex-director-geral do Fundo Monetário Internacional. O presidente actual é Paul Volcker.

O predecessor imediato do Grupo dos Trinta foi o Grupo Bellagio, formado pelo economista Austríaco Fritz Machlup.[2] Este grupo reuniu-se pela primeira vez em 1963, para investigar problemas internacionais de divisas, em particular a crise da balança de pagamentos enfrentada pelos Estados Unidos no início da década de 1960.


Programas de Trabalho do Grupo dos Trinta


O Grupo dos Trinta estabelece grupos de estudo para analisar as questões ou de importância sistêmica ou particular para os mercados financeiros globais. Membros do grupo de estudo é mais amplo do que o de Normalmente o G30, amostra crescente especialistas na área específica das comunidades de regulação, financeiras e acadêmicas, e presidido por uma figura de liderança. Atualmente, o Grupo dos Trinta do Programa de Trabalho está focada em horizontes temporais de investimento. [4] O projeto é liderado por uma Comissão Directiva com Guillermo Ortiz (Presidente), Adair Turner, Tharman Shanmugaratnam, e Axel A. Weber.The projeto enfoca os desafios futuros para as futuras fontes de abastecimento e de financiamento de longo prazo para os bancos, companhias de seguros, fundos de pensão e outros atores nos mercados financeiros.

--

Grupo de Trabalho dos Sistemas Regulatórios Financeiros


Em 2007, o G30 estabeleceu o Grupo de Trabalho dos Sistemas Regulatórios Financeiros para endereçar as grandes mudanças no mundo da supervisão financeira, incluindo a reorganização institucional, à luz da rápida evolução dos mercados financeiros internacionais, que suscita questões sobre a organização da supervisão e da regulação.

Tendo concluído que as entidades reguladoras procuram uma organização óptima das tarefas de supervisão à medida que muda a natureza e complexidade dos mercados, o grupo de trabalho procura clarificar as vantagens e fraquezas dos diferentes tipos de sistemas regulatórios dos principais mercados. O projecto examina as quatro principais abordagens regulatórias adoptadas: institucional (por estatuto legal), funcional (por natureza da actividade), integrada (regulador único e integrado) e gémea (responsabilidades partilhadas por dois reguladores).

O grupo analisou os sistemas regulatórios de 17 mercados chave, seleccionados de acordo com a sua dimensão e importância para o sistema financeiro global. Os mercados incluídos foram: Alemanha, Austrália, Brasil, Canadá, China, Espanha, Estados Unidos, França, Holanda, Hong Kong, Itália, Japão, México, Qatar, Reino Unido, Singapura e Suíça. O grupo recorreu a material de pesquisa factual da estrutura de supervisão de cada país e de cada agência financeira nacional para demonstrar tendências, problemas e desenvolvimentos nos sistemas regulatórios financeiros. O relatório final deste Grupo de Trabalho foi publicado em 2008.[3]

Rumo a governação eficaz das Instituições Financeiras


O grupo de trabalho anterior focado em Governanção Corporativa. Aulas sobre o desenho da crise financeira, o G30 chamado em conselhos de administração de fazer muito mais para a governação rigorosa no relatório então recém-lançado, em direção à governança eficaz das instituições financeiras. O relatório [5] salientou que valores influenciam o comportamento ou aqueles com responsabilidades de governação e a chave para a reforma é promover mudanças nas formas em todas as teses que personen pensar sobre suas responsabilidades.

Política macroprudencial: Abordar as coisas que não sei


No Grupo dos Trinta O mais recente papel ocasional, "Política macroprudenciais: Abordar as coisas que não sei" [1], Alastair Clark e Sir Andrew esboço Grande como considerações principais que as cinzas remainning autoridades nacionais de política macroprudencial endereço. Os autores falam da necessidade de um foco claro de autoridade institucional, face às tensões entre a política macroprudencial e outras políticas de regulação, e instar o desenvolvimento de ferramentas de políticas eficazes, bem como a transparência e prestação de contas adequação.

A crise financeira de 2008 e suas conseqüências: como enfrentar o desafio da Dívida segute


Em junho de 2011, O Grupo dos Trinta lançou o relatório "The 2008 Financial Crisis and Its Aftermath: Addressing the Next Debt Challenge" ("A crise financeira de 2008 e suas consequências: Como Enfrentar o desafio da Dívida seguinte") [2] Este relatório analisa os desenvolvimentos mais recentes da crise financeira de 2008, toals as causas, as respostas e as perspectivas futuras para os Estados Unidos e outros mercados.

Reforçar a estabilidade financeira e Resiliência: Políticas macroprudenciais, Ferramentas e Sistemas para o Futuro.


O Grupo de Trabalho sobre as Políticas macroprudenciais publicou no final de 2010, o relatório sobre reforço da estabilidade financeira e Resiliência: Políticas macroprudenciais, Ferramentas e Sistemas para o futuro [3]. O relatório pede aos decisores políticos para capacitar os sistemas reguladores financeiros com novas ferramentas para melhorar a estabilidade económica e potencialmente diminuir a gravidade de futuras crises econômicas. Estes instrumentos deverão abordar a alavancagem, a liquidez, o crédito e a supervisão. O relatório destaca o facto de que enquanto a acção política pode ser difícil e controversa, é necessária uma acção robusta.

Programas de Trabalho Anteriores


Alguns dos programas de trabalho anteriores do Grupo do Trinta:


Reseguros,
Compensação e liquidação globais, e
Derivados.

Outras publicações


O G30 também produz mais de 75 publicações e vários relatórios sobre outros temas tais como:

Contabilidade
Sistema bancário
Bancos centrais
Commodities
Dívida
Política económica
Reforma económica
Mercados emergentes
União Europeia
Taxa de câmbio
Estabilidade financeira
Investimento directo estrangeiro
Globalização
Governância
Insolvência
Fundo Monetário Internacional
Política monetária
Regulação
Risco
Valores mobiliários
Supervisão
Comércio

Publicações recentes


Algumas publicações recentes:


The Structure of Financial Supervision: Approaches: Approaches and Challenges in a Global Marketplace (em inglês), pelo Grupo de Trabalho dos Sistemas regulatórios Financeiros, G30, 2008.
Distorting the Micro to Embellish the Macro: The Case of Argentina (em inglês), por Domingo Cavallo e Joaquín Cottani, 2008.
Credit Crunch: Where do we stand? (em inglês), por Thomas A. Russo, 2008.
Banking, Financial, and Regulatory Reform (em inglês), por Liu Mingkang, Roger W. Ferguson, Jr., e Guillermo Ortiz Martinez, 2007.
The Achievements and Challenges of European Union Integration and Its Implications for the United States (em inglês), por Jacques de Larosière, 2007.
Nine Common Misconceptions About Competitiveness and Globalization (em inglês), por Guillermo de la Dehesa, 2007

Referências


1.↑ McRae, Desmond (1990). Coming of Age (em inglês). Global Guardian.
2.↑ Gottfried Haberler. Fritz Machlup: In Memoriam (em inglês). Cato Journal. Cato Institute.
3.↑ Grupo de Trabalho dos Sistemas regulatórios Financeiros (2008). The Structure of Financial Supervision: Approaches: Approaches and Challenges in a Global Marketplace (em inglês). Grupo dos Trinta. Consultado a 18 Nov 2008

-----

outras Publicações


Algumas publicações recentes publicadas pelo G30


Policies for Stabilization and Growth in Small Very Open Economies, by DeLisle Worrell
The Long-term Outlook for the European Project and the Single Currency, by Jacques de Larosiere
Toward Effective Governance of Financial Institutions, by G30 Working Group
Annual Report 2010-2011, by The Group of Thirty
Three Years Later: Unfinished Business in Financial Reform, by Paul Volcker


Membros do Grupo dos Trinta


Os atuais membros do Grupo dos Trinta são [6]:


Paul Volcker - Presidente Emérito, ex-presidente de Economia do presidente Barack Obama Conselho Consultivo de Recuperação, ex-presidente da Reserva Federal

Jacob A. Frenkel - Presidente do Conselho de Curadores, presidente do JPMorgan Chase International, ex-presidente, o Banco de Israel

Jean-Claude Trichet - presidente, Ex-Presidente do Banco Central Europeu, governador honorário, Banque de France
Geoffrey L. Bell - Secretário Executivo, Presidente Geoffrey Bell e Associados, ex-assessor, o Banco da Venezuela
Leszek Balcerowicz - Professor, Escola de Economia de Varsóvia, Ex-Presidente, Banco Nacional da Polônia
Mark Carney - Governador do Banco do Canadá, Membro do Conselho de Administração, o Banco de Compensações Internacionais, Presidente, Conselho de Estabilidade Financeira
Jaime Caruana - Gerente Geral, Banco de Compensações Internacionais, ex-governador, o Banco de España
Domingo Cavallo - Presidente e CEO, DFC Associates, LLC, ex-ministro da Economia, Argentina
E. Gerald Corrigan - Diretor, Goldman Sachs, ex-presidente do Federal Reserve Bank de Nova York
Guillermo de la Dehesa - Diretor, o Grupo Santander, antigo vice-diretor, o Banco de España
Mario Draghi - Presidente, Banco Central Europeu, Ex-presidente do Conselho de Estabilidade Financeira, o ex-governador, a Banca d'Italia
William Dudley - Presidente, Federal Reserve Bank de Nova York; ex-sócio e Diretor Geral, Goldman Sachs
Martin Feldstein - Professor de Economia da Universidade de Harvard, presidente emérito, National Bureau of Economic Research
Roger Ferguson - Presidente e Chief Executive Officer, TIAA-CREF, Ex-presidente da Swiss Re America Holding Corporation
Stanley Fischer - Governador do Banco de Israel, ex-diretor administrativo Primeiro, Fundo Monetário Internacional
Arminio Fraga Neto - Sócio Fundador, a Gávea Investimentos, Ex-Governador do Banco Central do Brasil
Gerd Häusler - CEO, Bavarian Landesbank, ex-diretor administrativo e membro do Conselho Consultivo, Lazard e Companhia
Philipp Hildebrand - Professor Visitante Sênior, Escola Blavatnik de Governo, Universidade de Oxford, Ex-Presidente do Conselho de Administração, Banco Nacional Suíço
Mervyn Allister King - Governador do Banco de Inglaterra, ex-professor da London School of Economics, Fellow, The British Academy
Paul Krugman - Professor de Economia, Woodrow Wilson School, Princeton University, Ex-Membro, Conselho de Assessores Econômicos
Guillermo Ortiz Martínez - Presidente e Presidente, o Grupo Banorte Finaciero; Ex-Governador do Banco de México, Presidente do Conselho, o Banco de Compensações Internacionais
Raghuram G. Rajan - Professor de Economia, Chicago Booth School of Business, conselheiro econômico do primeiro-ministro da Índia
Kenneth Rogoff - Professor de Políticas Públicas e Economia, da Universidade Harvard, ex-economista chefe, Fundo Monetário Internacional
Tharman Shanmugaratnam - Vice-Primeiro-Ministro e Ministro das Finanças e Recursos Humanos, Cingapura, presidente da Autoridade Monetária de Cingapura
Masaaki Shirakawa - Governador do Banco do Japão, ex-professor, Kyoto University School of Government
Lawrence Summers - Charles W. Eliot Professor Universitário, Universidade de Harvard, Ex-Diretor do Conselho Econômico Nacional, Ex-Presidente da Universidade de Harvard, o ex-secretário do Tesouro dos EUA

Senhor Adair Turner - Presidente, Financial Services Authority, membro do Reino Unido Câmara dos Lordes
Sir David Walker - Assessor Sênior, Morgan Stanley International, Inc., Ex-presidente do Conselho de Valores Mobiliários e Investimentos
Axel A. Weber - presidente, UBS, Professor Visitante de Economia, Chicago Booth School of Business
Yutaka Yamaguchi - Vice-Governador Antigo, Banco do Japão, ex-presidente, a Comissão Permanente de euromoedas
Ernesto Zedillo - Diretor, Yale Centro para o Estudo da Globalização da Universidade de Yale e ex-presidente do México
Zhou Xiaochuan - Governador do Banco Popular da China; Ex-Presidente, China Construction Bank, ex-Asst. Ministro do Comércio Exterior
[Editar] Os membros seniores


Abdlatif Al-Hamad - Presidente, Fundo Árabe para o Desenvolvimento Económico, ex-ministro da Fazenda e do Planejamento, Kuwait

Os membros honorários



Richard A. Debs - ex-presidente, Morgan Stanley International, ex-COO, Federal Reserve Bank of New York
Jacques de Larosière - Presidente, Eurofi; Conselheiro, BNP Paribas, Ex-Diretor, Fundo Monetário Internacional
Gerhard Fels - Ex-Diretor, Institut der Deutschen Wirtschaft, Membro, Comitê da ONU para o Planejamento do Desenvolvimento
Toyoo Gyohten - Presidente do Instituto Internacional de Assuntos Monetários, Ex-presidente do Banco de Tóquio
John G. Heimann - Assessor Sênior, Instituto de Estabilidade Financeira, Controladoria Antigo da Moeda, Estados Unidos
Erik Hoffmeyer - Presidente, Politiken-Fonden, Ex-Presidente do Conselho de Administração, o Danmarks Nationalbank
Simultânea de gravação Peter - Professor de Economia da Universidade de Princeton; Senior Fellow Ex-Conselho de Relações Exteriores
William McDonough - O ex-presidente, o Federal Reserve Bank de Nova York
Shijuro Ogata - Vice-Presidente, a Comissão Trilateral, Vice-Governador Ex-Banco do Japão
Sylvia Ostry - Bolseiro de Investigação, Centro de Estudos Internacionais, ex-embaixador do Comércio e Negociações, Canadá
William R. Rhodes - Presidente e CEO, William R. Assessores Rhodes globais, Conselheiro Sênior, Citigroup, Inc..
Ernest Stern - Assessor Sênior, The Rohatyn Group, ex-diretor administrativo, o Banco Mundial
Marina v N. Whitman - Professor de Administração de Empresas e Políticas Públicas, Ford School of Public Policy, da Universidade de Michigan, Ex-Membro, Conselho de Assessores Econômicos [7]


Outros ex-membros


Outros ex-membros incluem:


O ex-presidente do Federal Reserve, Alan Greenspan
Wilfried Guth - Porta-vozes Antigos do Conselho de Diretores, o Deutsche Bank
Austríaco-americano economista Fritz Machlup
Antigo Banco da Inglaterra vice-governador, Rupert Pennant Rea-
O ex-presidente do Bundesbank, Karl Otto Pohl
O ex-Kennedy era funcionário do Tesouro, Robert Roosa
Senhor Richardson ou Duntisbourne - ex-Presidente Honorário
Ex-presidente do Instituto Monetário Europeu, Alexandre Lamfalussy


ver também

Governança Corporativa
estabilidade econômica
financiar
regulação financeira
Sistema Financeiro Global
economia internacional
finanças internacionais
Política macroprudencial
política monetária

Referências


^ Karen Epper Hoffman (25 de março de 2005). "G30 Membros discutir questões críticas para as empresas americanas". AFP Online. Arquivado do original em 27 de setembro de 2007.
^ Http :/ / www.group30.org/images/PDF/G30%% 20November 2022% 2011% 20Press% 20final.pdf% 20Release
^ Gottfried Haberler. "Fritz Machlup: In Memoriam" (PDF). Cato Journal. Cato Institute.
^ Http :/ / group30.org/workprogram.shtml
^ Http :/ / www.group30.org/rpt_64.shtml
^ Http :/ / group30.org/members.shtml
^ Http :/ / group30.org/members_emeritus.shtml


Group of Thirty members 2012

14
Paul A. Volcker
Chairman Emeritus, Group of Thirty
Former Chairman, President Barack Obama’s Economic Recovery Advisory Board
Former Chairman, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System
Jacob A. Frenkel
Chairman of the Board of Trustees, Group of Thirty
Chairman, JPMorgan Chase International
Former Governor, Bank of Israel
Former Professor of Economics, University of Chicago
Former Counselor, Director of Research, International Monetary Fund
Jean-Claude Trichet
Chairman, Group of Thirty
Honorary Governor, Banque de France
Former President, European Central Bank
Former Governor, Banque de France
Geoffrey L. Bell
Executive Secretary, Group of Thirty
President, Geoffrey Bell & Company, Inc.
Leszek Balcerowicz
Professor, Warsaw School of Economics
Chairman of the Board, Bruegel
Former President, National Bank of Poland
Former Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Finance, Poland
Mark Carney
Governor, Bank of Canada
Chairman, Financial Stability Board
Member, Board of Directors, Bank for International Settlement

Jaime Caruana
General Manager, Bank for International Settlements
Former Financial Counsellor, International Monetary Fund
Former Governor, Banco de España
Former Chairman, Basel Committee on Banking Supervision
Domingo Cavallo
Chairman and CEO, DFC Associates, LLC
Former Minister of Economy, Argentina
E. Gerald Corrigan
Managing Director, Goldman Sachs Group, Inc.
Former President, Federal Reserve Bank of New York
Guillermo de la Dehesa Romero
Director and Member of the Executive Committee, Grupo Santander
Former Deputy Managing Director, Banco de España
Former Secretary of State, Ministry of Economy and Finance, Spain

Mario Draghi
Governor, European Central Bank
Member, Board of Directors, Bank for International Settlements
Former Governor, Banca d’Italia
Former Chairman, Financial Stability Board
Former Vice Chairman and Managing Director, Goldman Sachs International
William Dudley
President, Federal Reserve Bank of New York
Member, Board of Directors, Bank for International Settlements
Former Partner and Managing Director, Goldman Sachs and Company
Martin Feldstein
Professor of Economics, Harvard University
President Emeritus, National Bureau of Economic Research
Former Chairman, Council of Economic Advisers
Roger W. Ferguson, Jr.
President and CEO, TIAA-CREF
Former Chairman, Swiss Re America Holding Corporation
Former Vice Chairman, Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System
Stanley Fischer
Governor, Bank of Israel
Former First Managing Director, International Monetary Fund
Arminio Fraga Neto
Founding Partner, Gávea Investimentos
Chairman of the Board, BM&F-Bovespa
Former Governor, Banco Central do Brasil
Gerd Häusler
Chief Executive Officer, Bayerische Landesbank
Member of the Board of Directors and Senior Advisor, RHJ International
Former Managing Director and Member of the Advisory Board, Lazard & Co.
Former Counselor and Director, International Monetary Fund
Former Managing Director, Dresdner Bank
Philipp Hildebrand
Senior Visiting Fellow, Blavatnik School of Government, Oxford University
Former Chairman of the Governing Board, Swiss National Bank
Former Partner, Moore Capital Management
Mervyn King
Governor, Bank of England
Member, Board of Directors, Bank for International Settlements
Member of the Governing and General Councils, European Central Bank
Former Professor of Economics, London School of Economics
Paul Krugman
Professor of Economics, Woodrow Wilson School, Princeton University
Former Member, Council of Economic Advisers

Guillermo Ortiz
President and Chairman, Grupo Financiero Banorte
Former Governor, Banco de México
Former Chairman of the Board, Bank for International Settlements
Former Secretary of Finance and Public Credit, Mexico
Raghuram G. Rajan
Professor of Economics, Chicago Booth School of Business
Economic Advisor to Prime Minister of India
Kenneth Rogoff
Thomas D. Cabot Professor of Public Policy and Economics, Harvard University
Former Chief Economist and Director of Research, IMF
Tharman Shanmugaratnam
Deputy Prime Minister & Minister for Finance & Manpower, Singapore
Chairman, Monetary Authority of Singapore
Chairman of International Monetary & Financial Committee, IMF
Former Managing Director, Monetary Authority of Singapore
Masaaki Shirakawa
Governor, Bank of Japan
Vice-Chairman, Board of Directors, Bank for International Settlements
Former Professor, Kyoto University School of Government
Lawrence H. Summers
Charles W. Eliot University Professor at Harvard University
Former Director, National Economics Council for President Barack Obama
Former President, Harvard University
Former Secretary of the Treasury
Lord Adair Turner
Chairman, Financial Services Authority
Member of the House of Lords, United Kingdom
David Walker
Senior Advisor, Morgan Stanley International, Inc.
Former Chairman, Morgan Stanley International, Inc.
Former Chairman, Securities and Investments Board, U.K.
Axel A. Weber
Chairman, UBS
Former Visiting Professor of Economics, Chicago Booth School of Business
Former President, Deutsche Bundesbank
Yutaka Yamaguchi
Former Deputy Governor, Bank of Japan
Former Chairman, Euro Currency Standing Commission
Ernesto Zedillo
Director, Yale Center for the Study of Globalization, Yale University
Former President of Mexico

Zhou Xiaochuan
Governor, People’s Bank of China
Member, Board of Directors, Bank for International Settlements
Former President, China Construction Bank
Former Assistant Minister of Foreign Trade

Sylvia Ostry
Distinguished Research Fellow, Munk Centre for International Studies, Toronto
Former Ambassador for Trade Negotiations, Canada
Former Head, OECD Economics and Statistics Department

William R. Rhodes
President and CEO, William R. Rhodes Global Advisors
Senior Advisor, Citigroup
Former Senior Vice Chairman, Citigroup
Ernest Stern
Partner and Senior Advisor, The Rohatyn Group
Former Managing Director, JPMorgan Chase
Former Managing Director, World Bank
Marina v N. Whitman
Professor of Business Administration & Public Policy, University of Michigan
Former Member, Council of Economic Advisers

Senior Members


William R. Rhodes
President & CEO, William R. Rhodes Global Advisors
LLC Senior Advisor, Citigroup, Inc.
Professor-at-Large, Brown University

Marina v N. Whitman
Professor of Business Administration & Public Policy, University of Michigan
Former Member, Council of Economic Advisor

Emeritus Members
Andrew Crockett
President, JPMorgan Chase International
Former General Manager, Bank for International Settlements

Jacques de Larosière
President, Eurofi
Conseiller, BNP Paribas
Former President, European Bank for Reconstruction and Development
Former Managing Director, International Monetary Fund
Former Governor, Banque de France

Richard A. Debs
Advisory Director, Morgan Stanley
Former President, Morgan Stanley International
Former COO, Federal Reserve Bank of New York

Gerhard Fels
Former Director, Institut der deutschen Wirtschaft

Toyoo Gyohten
President, Institute for International Monetary Affairs
Former Chairman, Bank of Tokyo

John G. Heimann
Senior Advisor, Financial Stability Institute
Former US Comptroller of the Currency

Erik Hoffmeyer
Chairman, Politiken-Fonden
Former Chairman, Danmarks Nationalbank

Peter B. Kenen
Walker Professor of Economics & International Finance Emeritus, Princeton University Former Senior Fellow in International Economics, Council on Foreign Relations

William McDonough
Former Vice Chairman, Bank of America/Merrill Lynch
Former Chairman, Public Company Accounting Oversight Board
Former President, Federal Reserve Bank of New York

Shijuro Ogata
Deputy Chairman, Pacific Asia Region, the Trilateral Commission
Former Deputy Governor, Bank of Japan
Former Deputy Governor, Japan Development Bank

Sylvia Ostry
Distinguished Research Fellow Munk Centre for
International Studies, Toronto Former Ambassador for Trade Negotiations,
Canada
Former Head, OECD Economics and Statistics Department

Ernest Stern
Partner and Senior Advisor, The Rohatyn Group
Former Managing Director, JPMorgan Chase
Former Managing Director, World Bank

Group of Thirty Publications since 1990


REPORTS


Sharing the Gains from Trade: Reviving the Doha
Study Group Report. 2004
Key Issues in Sovereign Debt Restructuring
Study Group Report. 2002
Reducing the Risks of International Insolvency
A Compendium of Work in Progress. 2000
Collapse: The Venezuelan Banking Crisis of ‘94
Ruth de Krivoy. 2000
The Evolving Corporation: Global Imperatives and National Responses
Study Group Report. 1999
International Insolvencies in the Financial Sector
Study Group Report. 1998
Global Institutions, National Supervision and Systemic Risk
Study Group on Supervision and Regulation. 1997
Latin American Capital Flows: Living with Volatility
Latin American Capital Flows Study Group. 1994
Defining the Roles of Accountants, Bankers
and Regulators in the United States
Study Group on Accountants, Bankers and Regulators. 1994
EMU after Maastricht
Peter B. Kenen. 1992
Sea Changes in Latin America
Pedro Aspe, Andres Bianchi, and Domingo Cavallo,
with discussion by S.T. Beza and William Rhodes. 1992
The Summit Process and Collective Security:
Future Responsibility Sharing
The Summit Reform Study Group. 1991
Financing Eastern Europe
Richard A. Debs, Harvey Shapiro, and Charles Taylor. 1991


The Risks Facing the World Economy
The Risks Facing the World Economy Study Group. 1991
tHE WILLIAM tAYLOR MEMORIAL LECtuRES
Three Years Later: Unfinished Business in Financial Reform
Paul A. Volcker. 2011
It’s Not Over ’Til It’s Over: Leadership and Financial Regulation
Thomas M. Hoenig. 2010


The Credit Crisis: The Quest for Stability and Reform
E. Gerald Corrigan. 2008
Lessons Learned from the 2008 Financial Crisis
Eugene A. Ludwig. 2008
Two Cheers for Financial Stability
Howard Davies. 2006
Implications of Basel II for Emerging Market Countries
Stanley Fischer. 2003
Issues in Corporate Governance
William J. McDonough. 2003
Post Crisis Asia: The Way Forward
Lee Hsien Loong. 2001
Licensing Banks: Still Necessary?
Tomasso Padoa-Schioppa. 2000
Banking Supervision and Financial Stability
Andrew Crockett. 1998
Global Risk Management
Ulrich Cartellieri and Alan Greenspan. 1996
The Financial Disruptions of the 1980s: A Central Banker Looks Back
E. Gerald Corrigan. 1993
SPECIAL REPORtS
Toward Effective Governance of Financial Institutions
Corporate Governance Working Group. 2012
Enhancing Financial Stability and Resilience: Macroprudential Policy, Tools,
and Systems for the Future
Macroprudential Policy Working Group. 2010
The Reform of the International Monetary Fund
IMF Reform Working Group. 2009
Financial Reform: A Framework for Financial Stability
Financial Reform Working Group. 2009
The Structure of Financial Supervision: Approaches and Challenges in a
Global Marketplace
Financial Regulatory Systems Working Group. 2008
Global Clearing and Settlement: Final Monitoring Report
Global Monitoring Committee. 2006
Reinsurance and International Financial Markets
Reinsurance Study Group. 2006
Enhancing Public Confidence in Financial Reporting
Steering & Working Committees on Accounting. 2004
Global Clearing and Settlement: A Plan of Action
Steering & Working Committees of Global Clearing & Settlements Study. 2003


Derivatives: Practices and Principles: Follow-up Surveys of Industry Practice
Global Derivatives Study Group. 1994
Derivatives: Practices and Principles, Appendix III:
Survey of Industry Practice
Global Derivatives Study Group. 1994
Derivatives: Practices and Principles, Appendix II: Legal Enforceability:
Survey of Nine Jurisdictions
Global Derivatives Study Group. 1993
Derivatives: Practices and Principles, Appendix I: Working Papers
Global Derivatives Study Group. 1993
Derivatives: Practices and Principles
Global Derivatives Study Group. 1993
Clearance and Settlement Systems: Status Reports, Autumn 1992
Various Authors. 1992
Clearance and Settlement Systems: Status Reports, Year-End 1990
Various Authors. 1991
Conference on Clearance and Settlement Systems;
London, March 1990: Speeches
Various Authors. 1990
Clearance and Settlement Systems: Status Reports, Spring 1990
Various Authors. 1990


OCCASIONAL PAPERS


Macroprudential Policy: Addressing the Things We Don’t Know
Alastair Clark and Andrew Large. 2011
82. The 2008 Financial Crisis and Its Aftermath: Addressing the Next Debt
Challenge
Thomas A. Russo and Aaron J. Katzel. 2011
81. Regulatory Reforms and Remaining Challenges
Mark Carney, Paul Tucker, Philipp Hildebrand, Jacques de Larosière,
William Dudley, Adair Turner, and Roger W. Ferguson, Jr. 2011
80. 12 Market and Government Failures Leading to the 2008–09 Financial
Crisis
Guillermo de la Dehesa. 2010
79. Lessons Learned from Previous Banking Crises:
Sweden, Japan, Spain, and Mexico
Stefan Ingves, Goran Lind, Masaaki Shirakawa, Jaime Caruana,
and Guillermo Ortiz Martinez. 2009
78. The G30 at Thirty
Peter B. Kenen, 2008
77. Distorting the Micro to Embellish the Macro: The Case of Argentina
Domingo Cavallo, Joaquín Cottani, 2008
76. Credit Crunch: Where Do We Stand?
Thomas A. Russo, 2008
75. Banking, Financial, and Regulatory Reform
Liu Mingkang, Roger Ferguson, Guillermo Ortiz Martinez. 2007
74. The Achievements and Challenges of European Union Financial
Integration and Its Implications for the United States
Jacques de Larosiere. 2007
73. Nine Common Misconceptions About Competitiveness and Globalization
Guillermo de la Dehesa. 2007
72. International Currencies and National Monetary Policies
Barry Eichengreen. 2006
71. The International Role of the Dollar and Trade Balance Adjustment
Linda Goldberg and Cédric Tille. 2006
70. The Critical Mission of the European Stability and Growth Pact
Jacques de Larosiere. 2004
69. Is It Possible to Preserve the European Social Model?
Guillermo de la Dehesa. 2004
68. External Transparency in Trade Policy
Sylvia Ostry. 2004
67. American Capitalism and Global Convergence
Marina v. N. Whitman. 2003
66. Enron et al: Market Forces in Disarray
Jaime Caruana, Andrew Crockett, Douglas Flint, Trevor Harris, Tom Jones. 2002
65. Venture Capital in the United States and Europe
Guillermo de la Dehesa. 2002
64. Explaining the Euro to a Washington Audience
Tommaso Padoa-Schioppa. 2001
63. Exchange Rate Regimes: Some Lessons from Postwar Europe
Charles Wyplosz. 2000
62. Decisionmaking for European Economic and Monetary Union
Erik Hoffmeyer. 2000
61. Charting a Course for the Multilateral Trading System:
The Seattle Ministerial Meeting and Beyond
Ernest Preeg. 1999
60. Exchange Rate Arrangements for the Emerging Market Economies
Felipe Larraín and Andrés Velasco. 1999
59. G3 Exchange Rate Relationships: A Recap of the Record
and a Review of Proposals for Change
Richard Clarida. 1999
58. Real Estate Booms and Banking Busts: An International Perspective
Richard Herring and Susan Wachter. 1999
57. The Future of Global Financial Regulation
Sir Andrew Large. 1998
56. Reinforcing the WTO
Sylvia Ostry. 1998
55. Japan: The Road to Recovery
Akio Mikuni. 1998
54. Financial Services in the Uruguay Round and the WTO
Sydney J. Key. 1997
53. A New Regime for Foreign Direct Investment
Sylvia Ostry. 1997
52. Derivatives and Monetary Policy
Gerd Hausler. 1996
51. The Reform of Wholesale Payment Systems
and Impact on Financial Markets
David Folkerts-Landau, Peter Garber, and Dirk Schoenmaker. 1996
50. EMU Prospects
Guillermo de la Dehesa and Peter B. Kenen. 1995
49. New Dimensions of Market Access
Sylvia Ostry. 1995
48. Thirty Years in Central Banking
Erik Hoffmeyer. 1994
47. Capital, Asset Risk and Bank Failure
Linda M. Hooks. 1994
46. In Search of a Level Playing Field: The Implementation
of the Basle Capital Accord in Japan and the United States
Hal S. Scott and Shinsaku Iwahara. 1994
45. The Impact of Trade on OECD Labor Markets
Robert Z. Lawrence. 1994
44. Global Derivatives: Public Sector Responses
James A. Leach, William J. McDonough, David W. Mullins, Brian Quinn. 1993
43. The Ten Commandments of Systemic Reform
Vaclav Klaus. 1993
42. Tripolarism: Regional and Global Economic Cooperation
Tommaso Padoa-Schioppa. 1993
41. The Threat of Managed Trade to Transforming Economies
Sylvia Ostry. 1993
40. The New Trade Agenda
Geza Feketekuty. 1992
39. EMU and the Regions
Guillermo de la Dehesa and Paul Krugman. 1992
38. Why Now? Change and Turmoil in U.S. Banking
Lawrence J. White. 1992
37. Are Foreign-owned Subsidiaries Good for the United States?
Raymond Vernon. 1992
36. The Economic Transformation of East Germany:
Some Preliminary Lessons
Gerhard Fels and Claus Schnabel. 1991
35. International Trade in Banking Services: A Conceptual Framework
Sydney J. Key and Hal S. Scott. 1991
34. Privatization in Eastern and Central Europe
Guillermo de la Dehesa. 1991


33. Foreign Direct Investment: The Neglected Twin of Trade
DeAnne Julius. 1991
32. Interdependence of Capital Markets and Policy Implications
Stephen H. Axilrod. 1990
31. Two Views of German Reunification
Hans Tietmeyer and Wilfried Guth. 1990
30. Europe in the Nineties: Problems and Aspirations
Wilfried Guth. 1990
29. Implications of Increasing Corporate Indebtedness for Monetary Policy
Benjamin M. Friedman. 1990
28. Financial and Monetary Integration in Europe: 1990, 1992 and Beyond
Tommaso Padoa-Schioppa. 1990

------------------

Paul Volcker


In the course of his career, Paul A. Volcker worked in the Federal Government for almost 30 years, culminating in two terms as Chairman of the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System from 1979 to 1987. He divided the earlier stages of his career among the Federal Reserve Bank of New York, the Treasury Department, and the Chase Manhattan Bank. Upon leaving the Government, Mr. Volcker became the Chairman of Wolfensohn & Co., Inc. and Frederick H. Schultz Professor of International Economic Policy at Princeton University (now Emeritus). He was the first Henry Kaufman Visiting Professor at the Stern School of Business at NYU.

Mr. Volcker chaired the Board of Trustees of the International Accounting Standards Committee overseeing a renewed effort to develop consistent high-quality accounting standards acceptable in all countries. In 2003 he headed a private Commission on the Public Service recommending a sweeping overhaul of the organization and personnel practices of the Federal Government. In April 2004, Mr. Volcker was asked to Chair the Independent Inquiry into the United Nations Oil for Food Program, a responsibility that is continuing.

Pursuing his many continuing interests in public policy, Mr. Volcker is associated with the Japan Society, the Institute of International Economics, the American Assembly, and the American Council on Germany. He is Honorary Chairman of the Trilateral Commission and the Group of 30. He is also Chairman of the Trustees of International House in New York City.

Educated at Princeton and Harvard Universities and the London School of Economics, Mr. Volcker holds honorary degrees from those and other universities. Mr. Volcker is the author or co-author of a number of essays and books, including The Triumph of Central Banking; and Changing Fortunes: The World’s Money and the Threat to American Leadership.


Jacob A. Frenkel


Dr. Jacob A. Frenkel is Chairman of JPMorgan Chase International, a member of the Executive Committee of JPMorgan Chase & Co. and the J.P. Morgan International Council. He also serves as Chairman and CEO of the Group of Thirty (G-30) which is a private, nonprofit, Consultative Group on International Economic and Monetary Affairs.

Dr. Frenkel served from 2004 to 2009 as Vice Chairman of American International Group, Inc. and from 2000 to 2004 as Chairman of Merrill Lynch International Inc., as well as Chairman of Merrill Lynch’s Sovereign Advisory and Global Financial Institutions Groups. Between 1991 and 2000 he served two terms as the Governor of the Bank of Israel. He is credited with reducing inflation in Israel and achieving price stability, liberalizing Israel’s financial markets, removing foreign exchange controls, and integrating the Israeli economy into the global financial system.

Between 1987 and 1991, he was the Economic Counselor and Director of Research at the International Monetary Fund, and between 1973 and 1987 he was on the faculty of the University of Chicago where he held the position of the David Rockefeller Professor of International Economics and served as Editor of the Journal of Political Economy.

He is a Fellow of the Econometric Society, a Foreign Honorary Member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences (AAAS), a Member of the Board of Directors of the National Bureau of Economic Research (NBER), a member of the International Advisory Board of the Council on Foreign Relations, a member of the Trilateral Commission, a Member of the Board of The Council for the United States and Italy, a member of the Investment Advisory Council of the Prime Minister of Turkey, a member of Temasek International Panel (TIP), a member of the International Advisory Council of China Development Bank and a member of the Economic Advisory Panel of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York. He is also a member of the Board of Directors of Boston Properties, Inc., Loews Corporation and the Peterson Institute.

Dr. Frenkel is a Laureate of the 2002 Israel Prize in Economics, a recipient of the Tel-Aviv University Hugo Ramniceanu Prize for Economics, of the Czech Karel Englis Prize in Economics, of the “Order de Mayo al Merito” (in the rank of Gran Cruz) decoration from the Government of Argentina and of the “Order of Merit” (in the rank of Cavaliere di Gran Croce) decoration from the Republic of Italy. He is also a recipient of several Honorary Doctoral degrees and other decorations and awards, including the “1993 Economic Policy Award” by “Emerging Markets” and the “1997 Central Banker of the Year Award” by “Euromoney”.

During 1995-1996, Dr. Frenkel served as Chairman of the Board of Governors of the Inter-American Development Bank and, during 1999-2000, as Vice Chairman of the Board of Governors of the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development.

Dr. Frenkel is the author of numerous books and articles in the fields of International Economics and Macro-Economics. Dr. Frenkel holds a B.A. in economics and political science from the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, and an M.A. and Ph.D. in economics from the University of Chicago.

Jean-Claude Trichet



Born in Lyons, Jean-Claude Trichet is an Inspecteur général des Finances and Ingénieur civil des Mines and an Honorary Governor of the Banque de France. He is a graduate of the Ecole nationale supérieure des Mines de Nancy, of the Institut d’études politiques de Paris, of the Université de Paris (in economics) and of the Ecole nationale d’administration. He worked in the competitive sector from 1966 to 1968. He was appointed to the Inspection générale des Finances in 1971.


He was assigned to various posts at the Ministry of Finance in the General Inspectorate of Finance and later in the Treasury Department, where in 1976 he became Secretary General of the Interministerial Committee for Improving Industrial Structures (CIASI).


Jean-Claude Trichet was made an adviser to the cabinet of the Minister of Economic Affairs (René Monory) in 1978, and then an adviser to the President of the Republic (Valery Giscard d’Estaing) in the same year. In this capacity, he worked on issues relating to energy, industry, research and microeconomics from 1978 to 1981. He subsequently became Deputy Director of Bilateral Affairs at the Treasury Department from 1981 to 1984 and Head of International Affairs, also at the Treasury, and was Chairman of the Paris Club (sovereign debt rescheduling) from 1985 to 1993. In 1986, he directed the Private Office of the Minister of Economic Affairs, Finance and Privatisation (Edouard Balladur), and in 1987 he became Director of the Treasury. In the same year, he was appointed Censor of the General Council of the Banque de France and Alternate Governor of the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank. He was Chairman of the European Monetary Committee from 1992 until his appointment as Governor of the Banque de France in 1993. He was the Chairman of the Monetary Policy Council of the Banque de France as of 1994, a member of the Council of the European Monetary Institute from 1994 to 1998 and thereafter a member of the Governing Council of the European Central Bank. At the end of his first term as Governor of the Banque de France, he was reappointed for a second term.


Jean-Claude Trichet was elected Chairman of the Group of Ten (G10) Governors on 29 June 2003. He served as President of the European Central Bank for a eight yearsfrom November 2003 to 2011. He is now an Honorary Governor of the Banque de France.


He was named “Person of the Year” by the Financial Times (2007), “Policy maker of the year” twice by The International Economy magazine (1991 and 2007), and has received a number of awards, including the “Zerilli Marimo” prize from the Académie des Sciences morales et politiques (1999), the international “Pico della Mirandola” prize (2002), the “Prix franco-allemand de la Culture/Deutsch-Französischer Kulturpreis” (2006) and the “Ludwig Erhard Memorial Coin in Gold” (2007). He was also named “Central Banker of the Year” by The Banker (2008), “European Banker of the Year 2007” by The Group of 20 + 1 (2008), and “Central Bank Governor of the Year 2008” by Euromoney. He has been awarded honorary doctorates by a number of universities. Jean-Claude Trichet is a Commandeur de la Légion d’honneur and has been awarded several foreign honours.


Geoffrey L. Bell



Geoffrey Bell is President of Geoffrey Bell and Company which advises a wide range of central banks and governments on their international reserve asset and liability management programmes.


He was financial adviser to the Central Bank of Venezuela for over twenty five years and has acted as financial advisor to the Government of Barbados for more than twenty years and the Government of Jamaica for almost a decade. The company acts as a consultant to major corporations and banks in the United States, the United Kingdom, Europe and South America providing advice on capital market transactions as well as undertaking economic, financial and country risk analysis. The company also specializes in bank regulation and has worked closely on issues relating to the Basel Banking Committee. Geoffrey Bell was Chairman of Guinness Mahon Holdings, one of London’s oldest merchant banks, from October 1987 to April 1993 and negotiated its sale to the Bank of Yokohama in 1989.
Born in Grimsby in 1939 and educated at the London School of Economics, he joined H.M. Treasury after graduation. In 1963 he was a Visiting Scholar with the Federal Reserve System mainly based at the Federal Reserve Bank of St. Louis.


During 1964 and 1965 he lectured on monetary economics at the London School of economics. Between 1966 and 1969 he was Economic Advisor to the British Embassy in Washington.
In 1969 he joined one of London’s leading merchant banks, Schroders, as Assistant to the then Chairman, Gordon Richardson, who later became Governor of the Bank of England. He became a director of the company as well as an Executive Vice President of J. Henry Schroder Bank in New York working on the international expansion of the group.


Geoffrey Bell formed his own company in 1982. He was the Founder and is a member of the Board of Directors of the Consultative Group of International Economic and Monetary Affairs known as the Group of 30. His book, “The Euro-Dollar Market and the International Financial System” has been translated into French and Japanese and he writes frequently in the International Herald Tribune and in other financial journals. Geoffrey Bell was appointed a Governor of the London School of Economics in 1994.

Leszek Balcerowicz



Leszek Balcerowicz, born in 1947, graduated with distinction from Foreign Trade Faculty in Central School of Planning and Statistics in Warsaw (CSPS), now Warsaw School of Economics (WSE), in 1970. In 1974 he gained an MBA at St. John's University in New York; in 1975 received his Ph.D. in economics at the CSPS. Since October 1992 Leszek Balcerowicz has been a Professor at WSE and Head of Department of International Comparative Studies. He has been a Corresponding Member of the History and Philosophy Class of the Polish Academy of Arts and Sciences since 2006.


Leszek Balcerowicz is considered the architect of Poland's economic reforms initiated in 1989 - he designed and executed the radical stabilization and transformation of Polish economy since the fall of communism in Poland. In September 1989 Leszek Balcerowicz was appointed Deputy Prime Minister of Poland and Minister of Finance in the first non-communist government in Poland after the Second World War. He retained his positions in the government until December 1991. From April 1995 to December 2000 he was the President of the Freedom Union, a free market - oriented party and from October 1997 to June 2000 he was Deputy Prime Minister, Minister of Finance In 2001-2007 he was the governor of the Central Bank of Poland.


Education Leszek Balcerowicz, born in 1947, graduated with distinction from Foreign Trade Faculty in Central School of Planning and Statistics in Warsaw (CSPS), now Warsaw School of Economics (WSE), in 1970. In 1974 he gained an MBA at St. John's University in New York; in 1975 received his Ph.D. in economics at the CSPS. Since October 1992 Leszek Balcerowicz has been a Professor at WSE and Head of Department of International Comparative Studies. He has been a Corresponding Member of the History and Philosophy Class of the Polish Academy of Arts and Sciences since 2006. Political posts Leszek Balcerowicz is considered the architect of Poland's economic reforms initiated in 1989 - he designed and executed the radical stabilization and transformation of Polish economy since the fall of communism in Poland. In September 1989 Leszek Balcerowicz was appointed Deputy Prime Minister of Poland and Minister of Finance in the first non-communist government in Poland after the Second World War. He retained his positions in the government until December 1991. From April 1995 to December 2000 he was the President of the Freedom Union, a free market - oriented party and from October 1997 to June 2000 he was Deputy Prime Minister, Minister of Finance In 2001-2007 he was the governor of the Central Bank of Poland. Other appointments Leszek Balcerowicz is a member of the Washington-based international advisory body, the Group of Thirty, and a board member of the Peterson Institute for International Economics. He is also a member of the Group of Trustees of the Institute of International Finance. In 2011 he has been appointed a member of the Advisory Scientific Committee providing advice and assistance on issues relevant to the work of the European Systemic Risk Board (ESRB). Leszek Balcerowicz is a Chairman and a founder of Civil Development Forum Foundation – FOR based in Warsaw. He holds honorary doctorates from more than 20 universities around the world.


Mark J. Carney



Mr. Carney was appointed Governor of the Bank of Canada effective 1 February 2008, for a term of seven years. As Governor, he is Chairman of the Board of Directors of the Bank.



He is Chairman of the Financial Stability Board, and a member of the Board of Directors of the Bank for International Settlements (BIS), and Chairman of its Committee on the Global Financial System (CGFS).


Born in Fort Smith, Northwest Territories, Mr. Carney received a bachelor's degree in economics from Harvard University in 1988. He received a master's degree in economics in 1993, and a doctorate in economics in 1995, both from Oxford University.


Prior to joining the public service, Mr. Carney had a thirteen-year career with Goldman Sachs in its London, Tokyo, New York and Toronto offices. Mr. Carney was appointed Deputy Governor of the Bank of Canada in August 2003. In November 2004, he left the Bank to become Senior Associate Deputy Minister of Finance - a position he held until his appointment as Governor of the Bank. While at the Department of Finance he oversaw the budget process and served as Canada’s Finance deputy to the G-7, G-20 and Financial Stability Forum.

Jaime Caruana



Jaime Caruana took up the position of General Manager of the Bank for International Settlements on 1 April 2009.


Previously, Mr. Caruana was Financial Counsellor to the Managing Director and Director of the Monetary and Capital Markets Department at the International Monetary Fund.


From 2000 to 2006, Mr. Caruana was the Governor of the Bank of Spain, Spain's central bank, and in that capacity, served on the Governing Council of the ECB. He was also the Chairman of the Basel Committee on Banking Supervision from 2003 to 2006 and has been a member of the Financial Stability Forum since 2003. From 2004 to 2006, he chaired the Coordination Group, a senior group of supervisory standard setters from the Basel Committee, the International Organization of Securities Commissions (IOSCO), the International Association of Insurance Supervisors (IAIS) and the Joint Forum.


Prior to joining the Bank of Spain, Mr. Caruana served as Director General of the Spanish Treasury and headed an investment services company and a fund management company for nearly 10 years

Domingo Cavallo



Domingo Cavallo has been Robert F. Kennedy Professor of Latin American Studies in the Department of Economics at Harvard University since September 2003. He was born in San Francisco, in the Province of Cordoba, Argentina, in 1946. He received his primary, secondary and undergraduate education from Argentine public schools and universities. After graduating with degrees in public accounting and economics from the Universidad Nacional de Cordoba (UNC), at the age of 21 he earned a Doctorate in Economics from the same university.


Upon graduation, he was awarded the UNC's top honor, a gold medal for best academic performance of the year. At age 24, he was named Director of the Bank of Cordoba, Mexico. In 1977, he received his Ph.D. in Economics from Harvard University. He was the Visiting Professor in International Business and Economics at the Stern School of Business at New York University from 2002 to 2003. He founded his business consulting firm.


Since 2002, Dr. Cavallo has given conferences in many universities and institutions, including the University of Michigan, Columbia, Princeton, Georgetown, Stanford, Colorado, Boston, Boston College, Amherst College, Clark, NYU and Harvard. Former Minister Cavallo has received decorations from governments of more than 20 countries. Dr. Cavallo has been a recipient of numerous honorary degrees from universities such as the University of Bologna, the Universit' Paris 1 Panth'on-Sorbonne, the University of Turin, Ben Gurion University and the University of Genoa. He is Correspondent Member of the Royal Academy of Moral and Political Sciences of Spain and a member of the Group of Thirty.


Dr. Cavallo is the author of several books, including Volver a Crecer, Econom'a en Tiempos de Crisis, La Argentina Que Pudo Ser, El Desaf'o Federal, El Peso de la Verdad and Pasi'n por Crear.


E. Gerald Corrigan



Jerry is a managing director in the firm’s Executive Office. He is co-chair of the Firmwide Risk Management Committee, a senior member of the Firmwide Commitments Committee and a member of the Firmwide Client and Business Standards Committee. Jerry served as co-chair of Firmwide Business Standards Committee from 2010 to 2011. He is also a non-executive chairman of the Goldman Sachs banks in the United States and the United Kingdom. Jerry joined Goldman Sachs as a managing director in 1994 and was named partner in 1996.


Since joining the firm in 1994, Jerry has served as chair or co-chair of several firmwide and industry-wide groups dealing with various issues having major implications for financial market efficiency and stability. In addition, he provides a wide range of strategic advice to the firm and its clients.


Prior to joining the firm, Jerry served as president and chief executive officer of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York, where he worked for 25 years. While at the New York Fed, he served as chief executive officer and vice chairman of the Federal Open Market Committee from 1984 to 1993. Jerry has also served as president of the Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis and special assistant to Federal Reserve chairman Paul A. Volcker.


Jerry earned a Bachelor of Social Science in Economics from Fairfield University and an MA and PhD in Economics from Fordham University in New York City. He serves as chairman, trustee and member of several nonprofit organizations.


Guillermo de la Dehesa



Born in Madrid in 1941, Guillermo De la Dehesa studied Law and Economics at the Universidad Complutense of Madrid. Later, he became a Government Economist in 1968 and served at the Ministries of Trade, Industry and Energy and Economy and Finance. In these ministries and between 1978 and 1988, he was appointed, successively, Director General of Trade, Secretary General of Industry and Energy, Secretary General of Trade, Secretary of State of Economy and Finance and Secretary of the Commission for Economic Affairs of the Council of Ministers. He also worked at the Bank of Spain as Director for International Affairs and Foreign Reserves Management, between 1980 and 1983.


During those Government years Mr. De la Dehesa participated in the negotiations for accession of Spain to the European Union and, later, became a member of the 113 Committee, and of ECOFIN. He was also a member of the OECD Ministerial meetings, Deputy Governor of the IMF and the World Bank and Governor of the Inter American, Asian and African Development Banks for several years.


Since 1988, Mr. De la Dehesa has held different positions in the private sector (CEO of Banco Pastor, Chairman of Gas Madrid, Chairman of Plus Ultra, Vice Chairman of Hullas de Coto Cortes and Director of Cubiertas-MZOV) and today he is an Independent Director and member of the Executive Committee of Banco Santander, as well as independent director of Amadeus IT Holding, Campofrío Food Group and Aviva Corporation, in Madrid. He is also International Advisor of Goldman Sachs.


Mr. De la Dehesa is very involved in academic activities related to economics. He is Chairman of the Centre for Economic Policy Research (CEPR), in London, Chairman of the European Central Bank Observatory, (OBCE) in Madrid, Chairman of the Network for Economic Research on Electronic Communications (NEREC) in Madrid, member of the Euro 50 Group, in Brussels, Chairman of the Board of the IE Business School, in Madrid, member of the Advisory Board of CREI at the University Pompeu Fabra, in Barcelona and member of the scientific advisory board of the Instituto de Estudios Europeos and of the Instituto Elcano, in Madrid, and Chairman of the advisory board of ESCP-EAP in Paris. He is also member of the Executive Board of the International Chamber of Commerce ICC, in Paris and a monetary expert of the Economic and Monetary Committee of the European Parliament.


Guillermo De la Dehesa has written 6 books and coauthored another 18 books on economics, published in Spanish, and written 4 books and coauthored another 14 books on economics, published in English and author of 1 book in French and 1 in Chinese. He has published more than 90 papers in economic journals and more than 300 articles published in newspapers and magazines. He is a regular columnist at the following leading newspapers: “El País” in Madrid and less regular in “La Nación” in Buenos Aires, “Gazeta Mercantil” in Sao Paulo and “Reforma” in Mexico.


He is Chairman of the Trustees of the Reina Sofía Contemporary Art Museum and a Trustee of the Prado Museum and the Círculo de Bellas Artes all in Madrid.

Mario Draghi



In November 2011, Mario Draghi assumed the role of President of the European Central Bank, the institution responsible for the management of the euro and monetary policy in the Eurozone of the European Union. In April 2006 he was elected Chairman of the Financial Stability Forum, which became Financial Stability Board in the spring 2009.


Prior to taking the helm of the European Central Bank, Mr. Draghi was the Governor of the Bank of Italy from January 2006 to October 2011. In this role, he was a member of the Governing and General Councils of the European Central Bank and a member of the Board of Directors of the Bank for International Settlements. He also represented Italy on the Board of Governors of the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development and the Asian Development Bank.


He was previously the Vice-Chairman and Managing Director of Goldman Sachs International and a member of the firm-wide management committee (2002-2005). He was Director General of the Italian Treasury (1991-2001), Chairman of the European Economic and Financial Committee, a member of the G7 Deputies, and Chairman of the OECD Working Party 3. He was appointed Chairman to the Italian Committee for Privatisations in 1993, and, from 1984 to 1990, was an Executive Director of the World Bank.


During his time at the Treasury, Mr. Draghi chaired the committee that revised Italian corporate and financial legislation and drafted the law that governs Italian financial markets. He is also a former board member of several banks and corporations (Eni, IRI, BNL and IMI).


Mr. Draghi a graduate of the University of Rome, received his Ph.D. from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and subsequently served as professor of economics at the University of Florence from 1981 to 1991.


Currently, Mr. Draghi serves on the Board of Trustees of the Princeton Institute for Advanced Study and the Brookings Institution. He has been an IOP Fellow at the Kennedy School of Government at Harvard University. He has also authored and edited several publications on macroeconomic and financial issues.


Mr. Draghi and his wife live in Rome, Italy.


William C. Dudley


William C. Dudley became the 10th president and chief executive officer of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York on January 27, 2009. In that capacity, he serves as the vice chairman and a permanent member of the Federal Open Market Committee (FOMC), the group responsible for formulating the nation's monetary policy.

Previously, Mr. Dudley served as executive vice president of the Markets Group at the New York Fed, where he also managed the System Open Market Account for the FOMC. The Markets Group oversees domestic open market and foreign exchange trading operations and the provisions of account services to foreign central banks.

Prior to joining the Bank in 2007, Mr. Dudley was a partner and managing director at Goldman, Sachs & Company and was the firm's chief U.S. economist for a decade. Prior to joining Goldman Sachs in 1986, he was a vice president at the former Morgan Guaranty Trust Company. Mr. Dudley was an economist at the Federal Reserve Board from 1981 to 1983.

Mr. Dudley received his doctorate in economics from the University of California, Berkeley in 1982 and a bachelor's degree from New College of Florida in 1974.

In 2012, Mr. Dudley was appointed chairman of the Committee on the Global Financial System of the Bank for International Settlements (BIS). Previously, Mr. Dudley served as chairman of the Committee on Payment and Settlement Systems of the BIS from 2009 to 2012. He is a member of the board of directors of the BIS and the board of trustees of the Economic Club of New York.


Martin Feldstein



Martin Feldstein is the George F. Baker Professor of Economics at Harvard University and President Emeritus of the National Bureau of Economic Research. He served as President and CEO of the NBER from 1977-82 and 1984-2008. He continues as a Research Associate of the NBER. The NBER is a private, nonprofit research organization that has specialized for more than 80 years in producing nonpartisan studies of the American economy.


From 1982 through 1984, Martin Feldstein was Chairman of the Council of Economic Advisers and President Reagan's chief economic adviser. He served as President of the American Economic Association in 2004. In 2006, President Bush appointed him to be a member of the President's Foreign Intelligence Advisory Board. In 2009, President Obama appointed him to be a member of the President's Economic Recovery Advisory Board.


Dr. Feldstein is a member of the American Philosophical Society, a Corresponding Fellow of the British Academy, a Fellow of the Econometric Society and a Fellow of the National Association of Business Economics. He is a Trustee of the Council on Foreign Relations and a member of the Trilateral Commission, the Group of 30, the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, and the Council of Academic Advisors of the American Enterprise Institute.


Dr. Feldstein has received honorary doctorates from several universities and is an Honorary Fellow of Nuffield College, Oxford. In 1977, he received the John Bates Clark Medal of the American Economic Association, a prize awarded every two years to the economist under the age of 40 who is judged to have made the greatest contribution to economic science. He is the author of more than 300 research articles in economics.


Dr. Feldstein has been a director of several public corporations. He is also an economic adviser to several businesses and government organizations in the United States and abroad. He is a regular contributor to the Wall Street Journal and other publications.


Martin Feldstein is a graduate of Harvard College and Oxford University. He was born in New York City in 1939. His wife, Kathleen, is also an economist. The Feldsteins have two married daughters.

Roger W. Ferguson, Jr.



Roger W. Ferguson, Jr., is President and Chief Executive Officer of TIAA-CREF, the leading provider of retirement services in the academic, research, medical, and cultural fields and a Fortune 100 financial services organization.


Mr. Ferguson served as Vice Chairman of the Board of Governors of the U.S. Federal Reserve System. He was a voting member of the Federal Open Market Committee, served as Chairman of the Financial Stability Forum, and chaired Federal Reserve Board committees on banking supervision and regulation, payment system policy, and reserve bank oversight.


Prior to joining TIAA-CREF in April 2008, Mr. Ferguson was head of financial services for Swiss Re, Chairman of Swiss Re America Holding Corporation, and a member of the company’s executive committee. From 1984 to 1997, he was an Associate and Partner at McKinsey & Company. He began his career as an attorney at the New York City office of Davis Polk & Wardwell.


Mr. Ferguson is a fellow of the American Academy of Arts & Sciences and a member of the Academy’s Commission on the Humanities and Social Sciences. He is a member of President Obama’s Council on Jobs and Competitiveness and served on its predecessor, the Economic Recovery Advisory Board.


Mr. Ferguson is co-chair of the Committee on Economic Development, and he serves on the Board of Directors of International Flavors & Fragrances Inc. and Audax Health. He is also a board member of the American Council of Life Insurers, the Institute for Advanced Study, and Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center. He is a member of the Advisory Board of Brevan Howard Asset Management LLP and serves as co-chair of the National Academy of Sciences’ Committee on the Long-Run Macro-Economic Effects of the Aging U.S. Population. He is chairman of the Economic Club of New York and a member of the Council on Foreign Relations, the Harvard University Visiting Committee for the Memorial Church, and the Group of Thirty.


Mr. Ferguson holds a B.A., J.D., and a Ph.D. in economics, all from Harvard University.


Stanley Fischer



Stanley Fischer has been Governor of the Bank of Israel since May 2005. He was appointed to a second five year term in May 2010.


Prior to joining the Bank of Israel, Prof. Fischer was Vice Chairman of Citigroup from February 2002 through April 2005, and President of Citigroup International. Prof. Fischer was the first Deputy Managing Director of the International Monetary Fund, from September 1994 until the end of August 2001. Before he joined the IMF, Prof. Fischer was the Killian Professor and Head of the Department of Economics at MIT (Massachusetts Institute of Technology). From January 1988 to August 1990 he was Vice President, Development Economics and Chief Economist at the World Bank.



Prof. Fischer was born in Zambia in 1943. He took the B.Sc (Econ) and M.Sc. (Econ) at the London School of Economics from 1962-66, and obtained his Ph.D. in economics at MIT in 1969. He was Assistant Professor of Economics at the University of Chicago until 1973, when he returned to the MIT Department of Economics as an Associate Professor. He became Professor of Economics in 1977. He has held visiting positions at the Hebrew University, Jerusalem, and at the Hoover Institution at Stanford.


Prof. Fischer is the author of Macroeconomics (with Rudi Dornbusch and Richard Startz, 11th edition, 2010). He is also the author of Lectures in Macroeconomics (MIT Press, 1989, with Olivier Blanchard), Economics (second edition, McGraw Hill, 1988, with Rudiger Dornbusch and Richard Schmalensee), IMF Essays From a Time of Crisis (MIT Press, 2004) and Indexing, Inflation, and Economic Policy (MIT Press, 1986) and the editor of other books, among them Securing Peace in the Middle East (MIT Press, 1994). From 1986 to 1994 he was editor of the NBER Macroeconomics Annual; he has also served as Associate Editor of other economics journals. He has published extensively in the professional journals. Prof. Fischer is a Fellow of the Econometric Society and the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, a member of the Council on Foreign Relations, the G-30, and the Trilateral Commission, a Guggenheim Fellow, and a Research Associate of the National Bureau of Economic Research. He has serv ed on the Boards of the Institute for International Economics, Women's World Banking and the International Crisis Group, as well as the International Advisory Board of the New Economic School, Moscow.


Arminio Fraga Neto



Mr. Arminio Fraga is the founding partner at Gavea Investimentos, an investment management firm he founded in August, 2003, based in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, and Chairman of the Board, BM&F Bovespa, Brazil’s securities, commodities and derivatives exchange, since April 2009.


Mr. Fraga was the President of the Central Bank of Brazil from March 1999 to December 2002. From 1993 until his appointment as governor of the Central Bank, he was managing director of Soros Fund Management in New York. From 1991 to 1992, he was the director responsible for international affairs at the Central Bank of Brazil. Earlier in his career, he held positions with Salomon Brothers and Garantia Investment Bank.


Mr. Fraga has taught at the Catholic University of Rio de Janeiro, the Graduate School of Economics at Getulio Vargas Foundation, the School of International Affairs at Columbia University and the Wharton School.

Mr. Fraga has published widely in the areas of international finance, macroeconomics, and monetary policy. Mr. Fraga earned his Ph.D. in Economics from Princeton University in 1985, and his BA/MA in Economics from the Catholic University of Rio de Janeiro, in 1981.


Gerd Häusler



Mr. Gerd Häusler is currently the CEO of Bayerische Landesbank in Munich. From October 2008 to March 2010, Mr. Häusler was a member of the Advisory Board and a Senior Advisor at RHJ International after having served the previous two years at Lazard as a Vice-Chairman and Managing Director in their Financial Institutions Group and their Sovereign Debt Advisory practice.


Between 2001 and 2006 he was Counselor and Director of the International Capital Markets Department of the IMF responsible for all financial markets-related work and is credited with the creation of the Global Financial Stability Report; he also represented the Fund at the Financial Stability Forum. Before, Mr. Häusler was a Member of the Board of Managing Directors at Dresdner Bank AG in Frankfurt (1996 to 2000) and Chairman of Dresdner Kleinwort Benson in London (1997 to 2000).He spent the first 18 years of his career at Deutsche Bundesbank, the last two of them (1994-1996) on the Executive Board and the Central Bank Council. He has served as an outside director on the board of various companies (Airbus Germany, RWE Solutions, ARBED S.A. and ESSO Germany).


In addition, he served as a member of the German Stock Exchange Advisory Panel; the German Takeover Panel; and as Chairman of the Panel for the Promotion of Germany as a Financial Centre for the German Banking Association. Outside Germany, he served as a Director of the Institute of International Finance in Washington, D.C. and as a member of the International Advisory Committee of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York.


Gerd Häusler studied Law and Economics at the Universities of Frankfurt and Geneva and has been a member of the Group of Thirty since 1996


Philipp Hildebrand



Philipp Hildebrand is Vice Chairman of BlackRock and a member of the firm’s Global Executive Committee. He manages BlackRock’s largest client relationships across EMEA and Asia Pacific. Until January 2012, he served as Chairman of the Governing Board of the Swiss National Bank (SNB). In that capacity, he was a Director of the Bank for International Settlements (BIS), the Swiss Governor of the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and a member of the Financial Stability Board (FSB). In November 2011, the Leaders of the G20 appointed him Vice Chairman of the FSB. He also previously served as a Senior Visiting Fellow at Oxford University’s Blavatnik School of Government.


Philipp began his professional career at the World Economic Forum in Geneva. In 1995, he joined Moore Capital Management in London and was made Partner in 1997. He returned to Switzerland in 2000 to join a Swiss private bank as Chief Investment Officer before joining the Governing Board of the Swiss National Bank in 2003.


Between 2006 and 2009, he served as a member of the Strategic Committee of the French Debt Management Office. In 2011, he received the Central Banker of the Year, Europe Award from The Banker. Philipp Hildebrand is a member of the Group of Thirty and an Honorary Fellow of Lincoln College, Oxford. He serves on the International Advisory Board of the Blavatnik School of Government.


Philipp was raised and educated in Switzerland, the United States and Canada. He went to high school in Connecticut and graduated from the University of Toronto in 1988. In 1990, he received a master’s degree from the Graduate Institute of International Studies in Geneva. In 1994, he completed his doctoral studies at the University of Oxford with a D.Phil in International Relations. While enrolled at Oxford, he was awarded visiting fellowships at the European University Institute in Florence (1992) and at the Center for International Affairs at Harvard University (1993).


Philipp is married to Kashya Hildebrand, and they have a daughter.


Mervyn King



Mervyn King is Governor of the Bank of England and is Chairman of the Monetary Policy Committee. He was previously Deputy Governor from 1998 to 2003, and Chief Economist and Executive Director from 1991. Mervyn King was a non-executive director of the Bank from 1990 to 1991.

Born in 1948, Mervyn King studied at King’s College, Cambridge, and Harvard (as a Kennedy Scholar) and taught at Cambridge and Birmingham Universities before serving as Visiting Professor at both Harvard University and MIT.


From October 1984 he was Professor of Economics at the London School of Economics where he founded the Financial Markets Group.


Mervyn King is a Fellow of the British Academy, an Honorary Fellow of King’s and St John’s Colleges, Cambridge and holds honorary degrees from Birmingham, City of London, Edinburgh, London Guildhall, London School of Economics, Wolverhampton and Helsinki Universities.

He is a Foreign Honorary Member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, is on the Advisory Council of the London Symphony Orchestra and is Patron of Worcestershire County Cricket Club.


Paul Krugman

Crise Económica Europeia Pode Acabar Já Se Existir Vontade Política: Opinião de Paul Krugman Prémio Nobel Economia Culpa Políticos Pelo Prologar da Crise Financeira e diz Que: "A Opinião Política Dominante Proíbe o Fim da Crise; E Enquanto a Alemanha Lucra Com aCrise, o Que Trama Portugal e Espanha, Nações Fracas do Euro, é o Próprio Euro"

Paul Krugman is professor of economics and international affairs at Princeton University, Centenary Professor at the London School of Economics, and, perhaps, his most well-known, as an op-ed columnist for The New York Times. In recognition of his influence The Washington Monthly called him “the most important political columnist in America.” In addition, Krugman’s reputation extends well beyond the U.S. The Asia Times recently called him “the Mick Jagger of political/economic punditry.” The Economist said he is “the most celebrated economist of his generation.” And, recently Mr Krugman received what is often called the European Pulitzer Prize, the Asturias Award given by the King of Spain.


Krugman is the author or editor of 20 books and more than 200 professional journal articles, many of them on international trade and finance. In recognition of his work, he received the John Bates Clark Medal from the American Economic Association, an award given every two years to the top economist under the age of 40. For the past 20 years, Krugman has written extensively for non-economists, including a monthly column, “The Dismal Science,” for the on-line magazine Slate. He has also been a columnist for Fortune and has published articles in The New Republic, Foreign Policy, Newsweek and The New York Times Magazine, before joining The New York Times.


Prior to his appointment at Princeton, Krugman served on the faculty of MIT ; his last post was Ford International Professor of Economics. He also taught at Yale and Stanford Universities, and prior to that he was the senior international economist for the President’s Council of Economic Advisers, under Ronald Reagan. He is a Fellow of the Econometric Society, a Research Associate of the National Bureau of Economic Research, and a member of the Group of Thirty.


He has served as a consultant to the Federal Reserve Bank of New York, the World Bank, the International Monetary Fund, the United Nations, as well as to a number of countries including Portugal and the Philippines. In 2007, he released a book entitled The Conscience of a Liberal. His previous book, The Great Unraveling, was highly praised and became a New York Times bestseller in both hardcover and paperback. Mr. Krugman and his wife, Robin Wells, have recently collaborated on two college textbooks -- Microeconomics published in October 2004, and Macroeconomics published in the September 2005. In 2008, Krugman was awarded the Nobel Prize in Economics for his work on international trade.


Krugman and his wife live in the Princeton area with their two cats.


Guillermo Ortiz



Guillermo Ortiz is Chairman of Grupo Financiero Banorte-IXE. He was Governor of the Bank of Mexico from 1998 to 2009 and Secretary of Finance and Public Credit of the Mexican Federal Government from 1994 to 1997. Prior to heading the Finance Ministry, he served briefly as Secretary of Communications and Transportation at the outset of the Zedillo Administration.


Other past professional experiences include being Undersecretary of Finance and Public Credit (1988-1994), Executive Director at the International Monetary Fund (1984-1988) and Manager as well as Deputy Manager in the Economic Research Department of the Bank of Mexico (1977-1984). In 2006, he was appointed to the Board of the Bank of International Settlements (BIS) and was elected Chairman of the Board in 2009. At the BIS he also chaired the Central Bank Governance Forum. He also was a member of the Committee to Study Sustainable Long-term Financing of the IMF (2006-2007) and of the Committee on IMF Governance Reform (2008-2009). At the IMF he also chaired the External Panel for the Review of the Fund’s Risk Management Framework (2010-2011).


Currently, he is a member of the Group of Thirty. He is also director and member of other international organizations and serves in the Board of several companies.


Dr. Ortiz has taught at universities in Mexico and the US. He has written and published two books and numerous papers on economics and finance in specialized journals in Mexico and abroad, and has received several honors and awards.


Raghuram G. Rajan



Raghuram Rajan is the Eric J. Gleacher Distinguished Service Professor of Finance at the University of Chicago’s Graduate School of Business.


Dr. Rajan is also currently an economic advisor to the Prime Minister of India. Prior to resuming teaching in 2007, Dr. Rajan was the Economic Counselor and Director of Research (Chief Economist) at the International Monetary Fund from 2003. Since then, he has chaired the Indian government’s Committee on Financial Sector Reforms, which submitted its report in September 2008.


Dr. Rajan’s research interests are in banking, corporate finance, and economic development, especially the role finance plays in it. His 2003 book (with Luigi Zingales) entitled Saving Capitalism from the Capitalists was followed by Fault Lines: How Hidden Fractures Still Threaten the World Economy, which was awarded the Financial Times-Goldman Sachs prize for best business book in 2010.


Dr. Rajan is a senior advisor to Booz and Co, BDT Capital, and MCAP, and on the international advisory board of Bank Itau-Unibanco. He is a director of the Chicago Council on Global Affairs and on the Comptroller General of the United State’s Advisory Council. Dr. Rajan is the President of the American Finance Association and a member of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. In January 2003, the American Finance Association awarded Dr. Rajan the inaugural Fischer Black Prize, given every two years to the financial economist under age 40 who has made the most significant contribution to the theory and practice of finance.


Kenneth Rogoff



Kenneth Rogoff is Thomas D. Cabot Professor of Public Policy and Professor of Economics at Harvard University. From 2001-2003, Rogoff served as Chief Economist and Director of Research at the International Monetary Fund Rogoff’s treatise Foundations of International Macroeconomics (joint with Maurice Obstfeld) is the standard graduate text in the field worldwide, and his monthly syndicated column on global economic issues is published regularly in over 50 countries.


He is on the Economic Advisory Panel of the Federal Reserve Bank of New York and the Central Bank of Sweden. His recent book with Carmen Reinhart, This Time is Different: Eight Centuries of Financial Folly (Princeton University Press), builds on a massive new data set covering 66 countries and 800 years. The book (a New York Times and international bestseller) shows the remarkable quantitative similarities across time and countries in both the run-up to, and the aftermath of, severe financial crises.


Rogoff is an elected member of the National Academy of Sciences and the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, as well as a member of the Council on Foreign Relations and the Group of Thirty. He has been invited to give numerous named campus-wide lectures at universities around the world. He holds the life title of international grandmaster of chess.


Tharman Shanmugaratnam




Tharman was appointed Deputy Prime Minister in the Singapore Cabinet following the General Elections in May 2011. He continues to serve as Minister for Finance, a responsibility he has performed since Dec 2007.


Tharman was appointed Chairman of the International Monetary and Financial Committee (IMFC), the policy steering committee of the IMF, in March 2011. He was admitted to the Group of Thirty, also known as "The Consultative Group on International Economic and Monetary Affairs", in June 2008.


He spent much of his earlier professional life at the Monetary Authority of Singapore (MAS), Singapore’s central bank and integrated financial regulator, where he was chief executive before entering politics in 2001. He has served in economic and education appointments since then, including five years as Minister for Education. In May 2011, he was also appointed Chairman of MAS. Between May 2011 and July 2012, he served additionally as Minister for Manpower.


Besides his responsibilities in Government, Tharman is Chairman of the Ong Teng Cheong Labour Leadership Institute; and Chairman of the Board of Trustees of the Singapore Indian Development Association (SINDA), which seeks to uplift educational performance and aspirations in the Indian Singaporean community.


Tharman serves as Member of Parliament for Jurong GRC. He was appointed 2nd Assistant Secretary-General of the People’s Action Party on 31 May 2011.


Tharman did his undergraduate and masters education in Economics at the London School of Economics and Cambridge University. He later obtained a masters in Public Administration at Harvard University, where he received the Lucius N Littauer Fellow award for outstanding performance and leadership potential.


Married to Jane Yumiko Ittogi, a lawyer by background and now actively engaged in community work and the non-profit arts sector. They have four children.


Masaaki Shirakawa



Masaaki Shirakaw was born in Fukuoka, Japan, on September 27, 1949.

He has been the Governor of the Bank of Japan since April 9, 2008, Vice-Chairman of the Board of Directors of the Bank for International Settlements (BIS) since January 2011, and Member of the Group of Thirty since August 2009.

Mr. Shirakawa graduated from the University of Tokyo with a B.A. in Economics and was hired by the Bank of Japan in 1972. He completed his advanced training at the University of Chicago (M.A. in 1977). At the Bank of Japan, his career encompassed both monetary policy and financial stability, and he held key positions, including Executive Director (2002 - 2006), responsible for laying the groundwork of Japanese monetary policy decisions. He also had extensive international experience, as the General Manager for the Americas and as the Advisor to the Governor for International Capital Markets.

Leaving the Bank in July 2006, he assumed Professorship at the Kyoto University School of Government until March 2008, when he rejoined the Bank.


Lawrence Summers


Born in New Haven, Connecticut, on November 30, 1954, Mr. Summers spent most of his childhood in Penn Valley, Pennsylvania, a suburb of Philadelphia, and was educated in the Lower Merion public schools. He and his wife Elisa New, a professor of English at Harvard, reside in Brookline with their six children.

Lawrence H. Summers is the Charles W. Eliot University Professor and President Emeritus of Harvard University. During the past two decades, he has served in a series of senior policy positions in Washington, D.C., including the 71st Secretary of the Treasury for President Clinton and Director of the National Economic Council for President Obama.

Mr. Summers received a Bachelor of Science degree from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1975 and after completing his dissertation, “An Asset-Price Approach to Capital Income Taxation,” he was awarded a Ph.D. from Harvard in 1982. He then went to Washington, D.C. as a domestic policy economist for the President’s Council of Economic Advisers. In 1983, he returned to Harvard as a professor of economics, and became one of the youngest individuals in recent history to be named as a tenured member of the University’s faculty.

In 1987, Mr. Summers became the first social scientist ever to receive the annual Alan T. Waterman Award of the National Science Foundation (NSF), established by Congress to honor an exceptional young U.S. scientist or engineer whose work demonstrates originality, innovation, and a significant impact within one’s field. In 1993, Mr. Summers was awarded the John Bates Clark Medal, given every two years to the outstanding American economist under the age of 40. Mr. Summers took leave from Harvard in 1991 as Nathaniel Ropes Professor of Political Economy to return to Washington as Vice President of Development Economics and Chief Economist of the World Bank.

In 1993, Mr. Summers was named as the nation’s Undersecretary of the Treasury for International Affairs. He had broad responsibility for assisting then Secretary Lloyd M. Bentsen in formulating and executing international economic policies. In 1995, then Secretary Robert E. Rubin promoted Mr. Summers to the department’s number-two post, Deputy Secretary of the Treasury, in which he played a central role in a broad array of economic, financial, and tax matters, both international and domestic. On July 2, 1999, the United States Senate confirmed Mr. Summers as Secretary of the Treasury. In that capacity, he served as the principal economic adviser to the President and as the chief financial officer of the U.S. government, presiding over a federal department comprising some two dozen distinct bureaus and offices, with a civilian workforce of nearly 150,000 employees. Mr. Summers was awarded the Alexander Hamilton Medal, the Treasury Department’s highest honor. After leaving the Treasury Department in January 2001, Mr. Summers served as the Arthur Okun Distinguished Fellow in Economics, Globalization, and Governance at the Brookings Institution in Washington.


On July 1, 2001, Mr. Summers took office as the 27th President of Harvard University. During his tenure as Harvard’s President, Mr. Summers focused on laying the foundations for the University in the 21st century. His ambitious plans encompassed significant growth in the faculties, the further internationalization of the Harvard experience, expanded efforts in and enhanced commitment to the sciences, and improved efforts to attract the strongest students, regardless of financial circumstance, with the Harvard Financial Aid Initiative.


In 2002, Mr. Summers was elected to the National Academy of Sciences, a private organization of scientists and engineers dedicated to the furtherance of science and its use for the general welfare. In 2006, Mr. Summers served as one of five Co-Chairs to the World Economic Forum in Davos, Switzerland.


Mr. Summers was appointed to serve as the Director of the National Economic Council for the Obama Administration in 2009. As Director of the White House National Economic Council and Assistant to the President for Economic Policy, Mr. Summers served as a key economic decision-maker in the Obama administration. The Economist magazine referred to the “Summers Doctrine” of massive active response to economic downturn combined with respect for markets in the basic allocation of resources as defining the recent approach to economic policy. Mr. Summers was the Chief White House Advisor to the President on the Development and Implementation of Economic Policy; he led the President’s daily economic briefing and was a frequent public spokesman for the Administration’s policies. He returned Harvard in early 2011 as the Charles W. Eliot University Professor and the Weil Director of the Mossavar-Rahmani Center for Business & Government at the Harvard Kennedy School.


Lord Adair Turner




Adair Lord Turner of Ecchinswell has combined careers in business, public policy and academia.

In September 2008 Lord Turner became Chairman of the FSA, and earlier the same year he was appointed Chairman of the Climate Change Committee, stepping down in spring 2012.

He became a cross-bench member of the House of Lords in 2005 and was Chairman of the Pensions Commission from 2003 – 2006, and Chairman of the Low Pay Commission from 2002 – 2006. He is the author of two books: 'Just Capital – The Liberal Economy', published by Macmillan in 2001, and ‘Economics after the Crisis – Objectives and Means’, published by MIT Press in 2012.


He is a Visiting Professor at the London School of Economics and at Cass Business School, City University; a Trustee of the British Museum, and an Honorary Fellow of the Royal Society of Edinburgh. Until June 2008 he was a non-executive Director of Save the Children UK.



Prior to September 2008 Lord Turner was a non-executive Director at Standard Chartered Bank, United British Media and Siemens; from 2000-2006 he was Vice-Chairman of Merrill Lynch Europe, and from 1995-99, Director General of the Confederation of British Industry. He was with McKinsey & Co. from 1982 to 1995, building McKinsey’s practice in Eastern Europe and Russia as a Director. He was previously Chair of the Overseas Development Institute (2007-10).



Lord Turner studied History and Economics at Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge from 1974-78.



He is married with two daughters.



Sir David Walker




Sir David Walker joined the Board of Barclays as a non-executive Director on 1 September 2012 and became Chairman on 1 November 2012.



Sir David began his career in 1961 with Her Majesty’s Treasury, where, with a period on secondment to the International Monetary Fund in Washington (1969-1973), he served until 1977. From 1977-1993, Sir David held several key positions at the Bank of England where, in 1981, he became one of four Executive Directors of the Bank. From 1988-92 he was Chairman of the Securities & Investment Board and, ex officio, a nominated member of the Council of Lloyd’s over the same period. He was a non-executive member of the Court of the Bank ofEngland from 1988-1993.Sir David was a non-executive board member of the former CEGB and subsequently of National Power plc between 1984 and 1994. He was formerly Chairman of Reuters Venture Capital, Vice-Chairman of the Legal and General Group and was Chairman of the London Investment Bankers’ Association for 4 years until June 2004. Sir David joined Morgan Stanley in 1994, where he was Chairman and CEO, Morgan Stanley International, and subsequently Chairman. At the end of 2005, he retired as Chairman but remained a Senior Advisor until the end of August 2012.



Sir David has been a member of the Group of Thirty (G30) since 1993: he is a trustee of the Group and was Treasurer from 1997-2004.He is also a trustee of the Cicely Saunders Foundation and was Chairman of the Business Leaders’ Group of the East End charity Community Links from 1995-2011.



In 1992, Sir David Walker published a report, commissioned by the Government and the Bank of England, on the LMX spiral in the Lloyd’s insurance market. Since 2007 Sir David has completed two reports and made recommendations in respect of the private equity industry and corporate governance at financial institutions. He also co-led the independent review of the report that the FSA produced into the failure of Royal Bank of Scotland and was a member of the four-person Committee chaired by Lord Woolf (former Lord Chief Justice) into ethical business conduct in BAE Systems plc, which reported in May 2008.


Axel A. Weber




Axel A. Weber was elected to the UBS Board of Directors at the 2012 Annual General Meeting and was thereafter appointed Chairman of the BoD. He chairs the Governance and Nominating Committee and has been a member of the Corporate Responsibility Committee since 2012.


Axel A. Weber was the President of the Deutsche Bundesbank and a member of the governing council of the European Central Bank between April 2004 and April 2011. In recent years he has also acted as a member of the steering committee of the European Systemic Risk Board and as a member of the steering committee of the Financial Stability Board. In addition, he has served as the German Governor of the International Monetary Fund, as a member of the board of directors of the Bank for International Settlements, and as a member of the G7 and the G20 Ministers and Governors.


Before moving from academia to politics, Axel Weber was a Professor for International Economics at the University of Cologne, a member of the German Council of Economic Experts and a member of the Research Advisory Board of the Deutsche Bundesbank. From 1998-2002 he was Director of the Center for Financial Studies in Frankfurt/Main and a Professor for Monetary Economics at the Frankfurt's Johann Wolfgang Goethe-University. His previous appointments include the position of Professor for Economic Theory at the University of Bonn (1994-1998).


He holds a Diploma in Economics from the University of Konstanz, and a Doctorate in Economics from the University of Siegen, where he also obtained his Habilitation in 1994.


Yutaka Yamaguchi




A graduate of the University of Tokyo (Economics), Mr. Yamaguchi joined the Bank of Japan in 1964 as a staff economist. In the ensuing years at the Bank, he spent most of his career in policy planning and policy-related research area.


His experiences at senior management level included being Bank of Japan’s Chief Representative in New York from 1989 to 1991, Director of Research and Statistics from 1991 to 1992, and Director of Policy Planning from 1992 to 1996.


He was appointed Executive Director in 1996 and Deputy Governor in April 1998. He retired from the Bank in March 2003 when the five-year term as Deputy Governor ended.

During the Deputy Governor years, he expanded his activity in Japan and abroad. He joined among others the Group of Thirty and Keizai Doyukai (one of the leading business groups in Japan). He is still active in these groups. He also chaired the Committee for the Global Financial System, a Basel-based committee of senior central bankers, for five years through March 2003.


Mr. Yamaguchi currently advises Japanese and international firms on economic and policy developments. He frequently gives speeches at various forums.


Zhou Xiaochuan




Zhou Xiaochuan was born on January 29,1948, in Dongan, Heilongjiang Province. He graduated from Beijing Chemical Engineering Institute in 1975 and received a PhD degree in economic systems engineering from Qinghua University in 1985.



In 1986, he became a member of the Economic Policy Group of the State Council and Deputy Director of the Institute of Chinese Economic Reform Research. He served as Assistant Minister of Foreign Trade from 1986 to 1989 and, between 1986 and 1991, was also a member of the National Committee of Economic Reform.



In 1998-2000, he served as president of China Construction Bank and oversaw the creation of asset-management companies charged with working out the banking system's bad debt. He also played a part in managing China's foreign exchange reserves.



From 2000 to 2002, Zhou was head of the China Securities Regulatory Commission. In December 2002, he was appointed to his present position as governor of the People's Bank of China.


Zhou has published a dozen monographs and over one hundred academic articles in Chinese and international journals. His articles "Rebuilding the relationship between the enterprise and the bank", "Social security: reform and policy recommendations" and book Marching toward an open economic system have all won awards in China.


Former Members


Abdlatif Al-Hamad




Mr. Al-Hamad was born in Kuwait in 1937, where he makes his home. He is married and has four children.



In the late 1950s and early 1960s, he studied in the USA, graduating from Claremont College (Honors, 1960) and the Harvard International Affairs Program (1962). Following his studies, Mr. Al-Hamad served as a member of the Kuwaiti delegation to the United Nations during its application for admission to this organization in 1962.



Since the early 1960s, he has been highly active in promoting economic and social development, particularly in the Arab world. In this capacity, Mr. Al-Hamad has held several important posts. Among these, he served as Director, The South & Arabian Gulf Society (1963-1981); Director, The Assistance Authority for the Gulf and Southern Arabia (1967-1981); Chairman, the United Bank of Kuwait (1966-1981); and Executive Director, the Arab Fund for Economic and Social Development (1972-1981). He was Minister of Finance and Minister of Planning, Kuwait (1981-1983). Mr. Al-Hamad has also served on numerous commissions and boards, including: the Brandt Commission (1977-1980); Deputy Chairman of the International Institute for Environment and Development (1976-1989); Member and Chairman, United Nations Committee for Development Planning (1982-1991); Member of the South Commission (1987-1989); and Member of the Commission on Global Governance 1992. He has recently arranged the printing of the CGG report, Our Global Neighborhood, in Arabic.



Currently, Mr. Al-Hamad is Director General and Chairman of the Board of Directors of the Arab Fund for Economic and Social Development; Trustee, Arab Planning Institute; Member of the International Finance Corporation (IFC) Banking Advisory Board Group (World Bank); Member, the Board of the Kuwait Investment Authority; and Chairman, Development Committee Task Force on Multilateral Development Banks.

References


1.^ Karen Epper Hoffman (March 25, 2005). "G30 Members Discuss Critical Concerns For American Corporations". AFP Online. Archived from the original on September 27, 2007.
2.^ http://www.group30.org/images/PDF/G30%20November%2022%2011%20Press%20Release%20FINAL.pdf
3.^ Gottfried Haberler. "Fritz Machlup: In Memoriam" (http://www.cato.org/pubs/journal/cj3n1/cj3n1-2.pdf PDF). Cato Journal. Cato Institute.
4.^ http://group30.org/workprogram.shtml
5.^ http://www.group30.org/rpt_64.shtml
6.^ http://group30.org/members.shtml
7.^ http://group30.org/members_emeritus.shtml

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